Fish meatballs are processed fishery products that use grind fish meat or surimi of minimum 40% mixed with flour, and other required ingredients to go through kneading and cooking. Fish meatballs are one of the selected products with high demand in the market.The household business scale is vulnerable to competition, it needs a strategy in managing the marketing of this processed product.The method used to achieve the goal is by identifying and grouping the problems into the aspect of management, production, and marketing of fish meatballs business from UKM NM Food it is then selected based on the priority of the problems as well as the science and technology to be applied to solve the prioritized problems.

Анотація наукової статті по сільському господарству, лісовому господарству, рибному господарству, автор наукової роботи - Mulyandari N., Darmanto Y. S., Dewi E. N.


Область наук:
  • Сільське господарство, лісове господарство, рибне господарство
  • Рік видавництва: 2019
    Журнал: Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences
    Наукова стаття на тему 'MARKETING MANAGEMENT OF FISH MEATBALLS AT HOUSEHOLDS' SCALE IN NM FOOD TEGAL CITY '

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «MARKETING MANAGEMENT OF FISH MEATBALLS AT HOUSEHOLDS 'SCALE IN NM FOOD TEGAL CITY»

    ?DOI 10.18551 / rjoas.2019-03.43

    MARKETING MANAGEMENT OF FISH MEATBALLS AT HOUSEHOLDS 'SCALE IN NM FOOD TEGAL CITY

    Mulyandari N. *, Darmanto Y.S., Dewi E.N.

    Study Program of Coastal Resource Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Diponegoro, Indonesia * E-mail: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. Вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.

    ABSTRACT

    Fish meatballs are processed fishery products that use grind fish meat or surimi of minimum 40% mixed with flour, and other required ingredients to go through kneading and cooking. Fish meatballs are one of the selected products with high demand in the market.The household business scale is vulnerable to competition, it needs a strategy in managing the marketing of this processed product.The method used to achieve the goal is by identifying and grouping the problems into the aspect of management, production, and marketing of fish meatballs business from UKM NM Food it is then selected based on the priority of the problems as well as the science and technology to be applied to solve the prioritized problems.

    KEY WORDS

    Marketing, management, fish meatballs, food.

    Competition in the business field is not getting tighter that it required a management to answer this challenge. Management is a series of process to achieve organizational goals by working together through the optimization of resources owned by the organization. In general, the management function is divided into four matters among others planning function, organizing function, directing function, and controlling function. Good management should be able to motivate all of the related things and to regulate the process in order to be effective and efficient in terms of natural resources as well as human resources.

    Fish meatballs are processed fishery products that use grind fish meat or surimi of minimum 40% mixed with flour, and other required ingredients to go through kneading and cooking processes. One of favorable fish processed products is fish meatballs. Fish meatballs are mostly used in various kinds of processed foods such as a complementary ingredient in vegetable stir-fry dishes, tofu meatballs, meatball noodles, grilled meatballs. Thus, the demand for this product at NM Food is high averaging 30 kg per week.

    The raw material for fish meatballs is obtained by washing fish meat and adding cryoprotectant known as surimi (Purwandari et al 2014 року). The processing of fish meatballs is started by mixing surimi and salt to make sticky pasta and then other ingredients are also added to enrich the flavor and then the dough is formed and cooked to be packed.

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    Organizing is the division of work that has been planned to be completed by the members of a workgroup, the definition of work relationships between them and the provision of the appropriate working environment.

    Organizing is one of the management functions that should get more attention from the leader. The drive is a tight relationship between individual aspects occurring from the arrangement of the subordinate to understand and the division of effective and efficient work to achieve the real goal of the company. On the above understanding, there is an emphasis on the obligation of the appropriate way to be used as drive, which is by motivating or giving work motives to the subordinates so that they are happily willing to do all of the activities in order to achieve the goal effectively and efficiently.

    Supervision is an attempt to examine the activities that have been carried out. Supervision is oriented to the object in question and is a tool to get people to work towards the desired goal. The description illustrates that supervision can be formulated as a process of determining what will be achieved, namely what standards are being carried out, assessing implementation, and when necessary to make improvements. Hence, the implementation is in accordance with the specified plan.

    Planning is mature and smart determination about what will be done in the future in order to achieve the goal. This definition implies that decision making is part of planning, but the planning process can also occur after determining the goal and decision.

    The industry is an economic activity that processes raw materials, basic commodities, intermediate goods and / or finished goods into goods with a higher value of use, including industrial design activities and industrial engineering (Kartasapoetra, 2000). In Indonesia, the industry can be classified into several types of groups. Industry based on the amount of workforce is distinguished into 4 groups, namely:

    • A large industry that has a workforce of 100 people or more;

    • A medium industry that has a workforce of 20-99 people;

    • A small industry that has a workforce between 5-19 people;

    • The home industry has a workforce between 1-4 people (BPS, 2002).

    According to Law of Republic of Indonesia No.13 of 2003 concerning

    manpower, the workforce is every individual who is able to do work to produce goods and services either to fulfill their own needs or society. In the Indonesian dictionary (1991: 927), workforce is people who work or do something, people who are able to do work both inside and outside work relationship.

    Home industry gives the chance of absorbing the workforce as well as improving the economy in the family. This could also be the additional income alternative in the family. Furthermore, Kimbal 2015 added that home industry as a family activity is consumptive and productive units consisting of at least two members of the same household, jointly borne the burden concerning work, food, and place to live.

    The process in a production must be designed and developed because poorly designed work can cause inconsistency in a product. For this reason, it is necessary to make a fixed and standardized procedure, so it does not change at all despite whom, when, and where the steps are taken. These orderly steps are called SOPs (standard operating procedures) (Schiffmann and Kanuk, 2000). Fish meatballs at NM Food are subject to SNI 7266 до: 2014, where the raw materials for fish come from Surimi which is produced by PT Namkyung. Kurimi. They have obtained a Certificate of Healthy worthiness No.3328 / 440/17/020/111/2018, Halal No. 15020007371112, SKP No.0502 / 33 / SKP / SR / V / 2017, HACCP No.066 / SM / HACCP / PB / 09/17. The process of fish meatball production starts with the receiving of surimi raw materials,

    melting, grinning, mixing spices, kneading, maintenance of cooling, sorting, packaging, weighing, and freezing (for frozen fish meatballs). An SOP must have an accurate description of the event process and its control, including (1) There is a list of materials and components of a process with minimal quality characteristics; specifically there is an explanation of the number of standard components used; (2) There is a complete description of the component (sample) which must be prepared before the work is carried out consisting of a description or formulation of a special component or a proper reference including the number and serial number of the component. (3) There is a list of characteristics of equipment such as capacity, precision, limitation, compatibility, an indication of names of special equipment. (4) There is a description of the steps of the events process including the scale or capacity of the operation. (5) There are process, method and success control parameters. Test or observation method which is an effective process control. In addition, the testing must have documentation. (6) There is a workflow diagram.

    (7) There is testing of effectiveness within the process and after the product, this should be limited and there are criteria that can be accepted by the professional.

    (8) There are examples of calculation, time estimate, and card list. (9) There are fees, transportation equipment, and a list of disturbing factors. (10) There are executors and accountability; (11) There is leadership accountability. (12) There are reporting and documentation.

    The object of the Home Industry Scale in this research is NM Food. NM Food is the home industry in the processing of fishery products located on Jalan Flores, Tegal Timur Subdistrict, Tegal City with a workforce of 2 permanent employees and 2 non-permanent employees. Production in the home industry scale is generally utilizing the existing resources and modest technology.

    Its strategic position in the northern coast of Java as a provider of marine products and close to the surimi industry has facilitated NM Food to produce and obtain sustainable raw materials. Good partnership with PT. Namkyung as the provider of surimi which is the raw material of the production becomes the advantage in producing.

    NM Food produces diversified fishery products using export quality surimi. In addition, the spices create distinctive taste of the frozen products of NM Food. Diversification can be defined as the development of a product to obtain a new form of high economic value and exceeds the price of raw materials and in the form of processed fishery products. The diversity of processed fishery products is expected to be an attraction for the community to consume fish and other fishery products. In addition, it is also expected to create healthy, nutritious and high-quality new products at affordable prices. Hence, it can increase people's interest in consuming fishery products (Putra et al 2015). NM Food is a frozen food brand registered at the P-IRT DINKES no: 20632760126 and it also has obtained BPOM RI certificate MD 243211003365 and halal certificate from the Indonesian Council of Ulema (MUI) 03 / ST.H / MU I / II / 2017.

    METHODS OF RESEARCH

    The method used to achieve the goal is by identifying and grouping the problems into the aspect of management, production, and marketing of fish meatballs business from UKM NM Food it is then selected based on the priority of the problems as well as the science and technology to be applied to solve the prioritized problems.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Creative industry and Micro, small, and medium-scale business (MSMEs) actors are encouraged to use digital media for publication and marketing of their creative products aside from traditional product publications. "Digital media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, blogs and e-commerce have enormous potential as a medium for publishing MSMEs products", publications traditionally require large costs with limited range. While publication through digital media is very cheap with extraordinary range because it can be seen by anyone both in Indonesia and abroad. With this chance, NM Food plans to do publication and marketing of their creative products through digital media. Here, NM Food can determine the market target, design the publication message, choose publication media and formulate the ways to create business and viral marketing.

    NM Food produces processed fish such as meatballs, ekkado, nugget, otak-otak, fish sticks, golden snail, roulade, tofu meatballs, dragon feet, dumplings. These are one of the consumer's superior product choices. This processed product uses export quality surimi as the raw material and it is processed in accordance with SNI. Surimi is grind fish that has been cleaned and washed several times so that most of the component of smell, blood, pigment, and fat is gone. Surimi is stored in frozen form by adding anti-denaturation (cryoprotectant) (Peranginangin et al., 1999).

    Technically, all types of fish can be used for surimi. However, white meat fish does not have muddy and fishy smells. It also has the ability to form a good gel that can produce better surimi (Peranginangin et al., 1999).

    The processing of fish meatballs from Surimi includes several stages, namely receiving raw materials, preparation of raw materials, thawing the surimi chopping, grinding, weighing amounted to 5 kg, kneading raw materials with spices, steaming using langseng at 100 C for ± 25 minutes , cooling / thinning on aerated draining tables using a fan for 1 hour, packaging using plastic package made from polyethylene (PE), frozen storage at -180C and distributing and marketing fish meatballs. For 5 kg of surimi raw material and 1.5 kg of complementary material will produce as much as 6.5 kg of meatballs or 442 fish meatballs which will be marketed in 250-gram packages.

    Organization structure of NM Food is not too complicated. NM Food is an MSME led and owned by M. Adib ZN, he has 2 expert staff to help him consisting of 2 permanent employees and 2 temporary employees. All of the procurement of the raw materials is carried out by the owner with the help of the expert staff, in the case of sudden order in large quantity. This business is a joint venture in which the owners and experts are husband and wife.

    The principle is that each part of the organizational structure has their own duty and responsibility for their work. The duty and responsibility of each part are as follows:

    The Director has the right to receive reports about every event happening in NM Food. The director has the duty to develop the company he owns.

    The expert staff has the obligation to instruct and observe the daily operational activity of NM Food related to general problems in NM Food such as logistics and technician. Expert staff are responsible for the smoothness and improvement of the production, preparation and implementation of work programs based on work guidelines, supervising activities regularly for production, supervising the use of raw materials, monitoring production results, making production reports, observing the quality of produced products to ensure that they are in accordance with the quality

    determined by national standards agency. They are also responsible for reporting product quality and testing product samples.

    The number of employees is 2 permanent employees and 2 temporary employees. The permanent employee is a permanent employee who is placed as a worker in the processing field and the temporary employee is employed assigned only for sudden order in large quantity. The salary for permanent and non-permanent employees is given once a week including the basic salary and food allowance. Working days are Monday to Saturday. Working hours are calculated from 8 AM to 4 PM WIB and rest hours start from 12 AM until 1 PM WIB. Each employee will receive overtime pay as stipulated by NM Food if they have to work more than the specified working hours. Most of the workers at NM Food reside in the area around NM Food with different educational backgrounds. Education level ranges between Junior and Senior High Schools. Most of them do not have special expertise in the fishery, they mostly know directly by working which is in accordance with work distribution directed by NM. For the welfare of employees, NM Food provides several facilities in order to improve employee performance other than a fixed salary. The facilities are in the form of meal, overtime pay, work leave, allowances (Holiday Allowance and health allowance), and work equipment (work uniform, gloves, headgear, and sandals).

    Facilities are an important element in production activity. Facilities are used for the continuity and smoothness of production. Processing facilities can be in the form of equipment and tools that support the production process. The facilities at NM Food are categorized into building and production facilities.

    NM Food has a building next to the house where the owner lives. The production building is right next to the owner's house consisting of several spaces such as a living room, processing room, storage room for raw materials and supporting materials such as packaging, minilab, toilet equipment warehouse and finished products. According to Wibowo (1998), processing building will determine the smoothness and success of the processing. Planning for processing building should pay attention to the following:

    a. Enough space for equipment, installation, and other facilities;

    b. Processes that are contaminating each other should be separated;

    c. Adequate lighting and ventilation;

    d. Available adequate facilities for preventing insects and rodents;

    e. Setting and arrangement of room layout are directed to facilitate the flow of processes and reduce the risk of contamination of the final product.

    2. Production facilities. Production facilities are everything used during the production process. Production facilities use to help the smoothness the production process in the form of equipment and supplies that support the production process. The production facilities owned by NM Food are as follows:

    a. Grinder. Meat grinder tool serves to smooth the raw material to obtain soft meat. Hence, it is easier to knead in the kneading process. The tool used in the meat grinding process can be said to be semi-modern. Human labor is still needed to assist in the process of putting raw materials into the chopper knife and compactor. This tool has an electric dynamo which is made of stainless steel.

    b. Mixer. A mixer is a device used to mix raw materials and other additional ingredients. The mixer is made of stainless steel. This tool uses power derived from an electric dynamo as its driver.

    c. Manual scale. Digital scale is used to weigh of the raw material to be used. In addition, the manual scale is also used to weigh tapioca flour, herbs, and fish. This scale has an accuracy of 1 g with a height of 10 cm and it is Nagata branded.

    d. Fish nugget printer. This tool is used to print the fish nugget dough. It is made of polyethylene with a height of 50 cm and 20 square holes. This tool is lubricated with cooking oil on all of its parts before use. The purpose of the lubrication of this cooking oil is to prevent the dough from sticking to the plastic. Thus, it will be easier to move it into the steamer.

    e. Knife. The knife is used to slice spices. The knife is made of stainless steel with a variety of shapes depending on the needs. This knife has a length of 22 cm and a width of 3.5 cm. The knife is used during the process of handling raw materials and for cleaning supporting materials such as onions.

    f. Langseng. It is useful as a container of fish nuggets dough that will be ready to be steamed on the stove. Langseng is made of stainless steel with a width of 42 cm and a height of 10 cm. Langseng has a perforated base which aims to spread the steam to the steamed products on the stove for 20 to 25 minutes and each langseng consists of 3 layers with the lowest part containing water and for the second and third arrangement having a hollow base. One langseng stack can hold ± 55 fish sticks during steaming.

    g. Electric scale. The electric scale is used to weigh spices and fish stick products during packaging. This scale has an accuracy of 0.1 gr. It is Quattro branded with 30 cm long and 23 cm wide.

    h. Production table. The working desk used in the production process is made of stainless steel with a length of 100 x 60 x 200 cm. This table can be used to print fish dough and to package fish products.

    i. Draining table. A draining table is a tool that serves as a place to drain and dry fish products. At this table, the product is drained. The slicer table used is made of stainless steel in a rectangular shape with a size of 100 x 60 x 200 cm.

    j. Adhesive. This tool is used when packing the fish products. The function of this tool is to stick the product packaging plastic to avoid product contamination with water, air, and dirt from outside. This machine uses electricity as a heating element in which it will later be used to stick plastic packaging.

    k. Freezer. A freezer is a tool used to store packaged and ready-to-market products. This tool has a height of 205 cm front width of 135 cm side width of 70 cm. It is SHARP branded. The storage process is carried out regularly in such a way. Product storage capacity that can be accommodated by this freezer is 100 kg. NM Food uses 3 freezers in which they are all top loading freezers.

    o. Fan. This tool has a diameter of 60 cm which is used to help the slicing process. Hence, it can be alternately used for products that have been steamed. This tool is placed on the table for a quick draining process.

    According to Kotler Bowen and Makens (2002) in Wijaya, 2006, market segmentation is the determining the buyers of the same group of needs and desires. This division of groups must be seen by the seller as part of achieving high sales figures. This segmentation can be seen from various factors, among others

    a. Geographical Segmentation. Geographical segmentation is a segmentation that divides the market into different geographical units such as countries, autonomous regions, cities, climates, or residential areas.

    NM Food has been visited several times by various agencies. They came to see the production process to sales through internship and comparative study. They are from FAFI, Department of Fisheries of Tegal, Department of Fisheries of Probolinggo East Java and internship students from APS Sidoarjo, East Java and UNDIP Semarang, Central Java. This indicates that NM Food products are getting famous by the general public. Hence, the target market can be wider.

    b. Demographic segmentation. Demographic segmentation is a segmentation that divides the market into various groups based on variables such as age, gender, family life cycle, income, employment, education, religion, race, and nationality.

    Demographic segmentation has broad criteria from gender, age, religion to employment. Processed fish products are served by frying because most children prefer savory foods. Thus, dragon feet and ekkado are categorized for children segment, while older people prefer steamed products such as dumplings.

    c. Behavioral segmentation. This segmentation classifies buyers based on knowledge, attitude, level of use of a product or service, and benefits sought by consumers in buying a product or service.

    Behavioral segmentation is grouped according to the attitude and level of knowledge. With a variety of products that are widely preferred by the wider community, most Tegal residents are used to consume fish and they like all types of processed fish from NM Food. On the other hand, slawi residents prefer golden snail and nugget with no fishy aroma because they rarely eat fish.

    d. Psychographics segmentation. This segmentation divides consumers into different groups based on lifestyle characteristics and consumer personality. Most of the NM products are targeted for lower-middle class because they offer the product price that can be afforded by people from lower class society. The market price ranges from Rp. 1000, - and Rp.3000, - these products are mostly packed for healthy snacks in the cafeteria - school canteens and for snacks for office employees. These NM products are intended for people with a practical and healthy lifestyle, especially for working mothers. The reason is that it will make it easy to prepare a practical healthy breakfast menu for their baby. Hence, NM Products are suitable for the lifestyle and personality of the active buyer with high mobility.

    Practical lifestyle is the choice of processed food products from NM Food where there is no need to process raw materials to be able to eat dumplings. Costumers only need to reheat or steam these processed fish products and they can enjoy the delicious fish dumplings within 10 minutes.

    Market segmentation must be carefully examined in order to determine the target market. This target market will determine the seller from the production to sales. Hence, the seller can predict what characteristics the buyer wants through this target market, even though all segments are not met.

    NM Food is a growing brand with the domestic target market. Supported by the various benefits mentioned above, NM has the opportunity in the frozen food business that can fulfill daily nutrition. High nutrient content, omega 3 and DHA from fresh fish are one of the reasons why this processed fish will be able to improve anyone's intelligence.

    The sales targets are both from direct selling and custom order such as at weddings, patients in clinic or hospital or patients with a special diet or catering services where the size and shape can be adjusted to demand catering and other consumers. This type of customer tends to choose 10 pieces of 250 grams, while for the patient's menu usually contains 5 pieces of 250 grams. There is a package of 6 pieces of 250 grams for fish roulade product. On the other hand, packaging also shows market segmentation. Standard packaging of rectangular plastic for the retail selling of middle to lower class and standing pouch for the retail selling of middle to upper class.

    It is important to always pay attention to the quality of products to further develop the product. Thus, NM food always chooses fresh fish and does not change

    the composition of other ingredients even during the increase of basic commodities prices.

    Product position is the way the product being defined by consumers based on a number of attributes, or where certain products are relatively considered by consumers against competing products. In other words, positioning is about how a company's brand can get into and control the customer's mind. Determination of position is not an activity that marketers do to products. It is an activity carried out by marketers to the minds of prospective customers. Hence, the position of the product can be properly embedded in the minds of customers.

    With the slogan of becoming smarter by eating fish, NM tries to position the produced product or the business by attaching the brand to the customer's mind. Hence, the customer's imagination will bring him to NM whenever they eat fish. They will start thinking about NM as a brand that produces various processed food made from high-quality fresh fish at affordable prices. Hence, deeper consumer's impression for NM is a fish processed products. A distinctive feature of processed fish products from NM Food is a special spice that blends with fish meat making the fish taste more delicious with a fresh aroma.

    There are many kinds of processed fish products, but NM Food strives to maintain quality and ensure the food safety of its products. Determination of raw materials, processing of products until post-production that implements GMP, SSOP, and HACCP have ensured that the product quality is always maintained. This quality assurance can be indicated by the P-IRT DINKES no: 20632760126, RI BPOM certificate MD 2432 11003365, and HALAL certificate from MUI 03 / ST.H / MUI / II / 2017.

    CONCLUSION

    The processing of fish meatballs from Surimi includes several stages, namely receiving raw materials, preparation of raw materials, thawing the surimi chopping, grinding, weighing amounted to 5 kg, kneading raw materials with spices, steaming using langseng at 100 C for ± 25 minutes , cooling / thinning on aerated draining tables using a fan for 1 hour, packaging using plastic package made from polyethylene (PE), frozen storage at -180C and distributing and marketing fish meatballs.

    Fish meatballs from Surimi can last for two days when stored at room temperature (250C), it can last for 30 days if stored in refrigerators with a temperature of 0-50C and it can last for one year if stored in a -180C freezer. Factors that can affect the quality and durability of fish meatballs include the freshness of raw materials, the composition of seasonings, the process of handling, and storage of products;

    The processed fish production process at NM Food is subject to the national standard of processing fish meatballs in which they have met health standards issued by the Public Health Office with the number P-IRT 20632760126 and BPOM RI certificate MD 243211003365 and halal standard issued by the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) 03 / ST.H / MUI / II / 2017.

    One of the obstacles faced by the company includes the lack of promotion of processed fishery products that have been produced. Thus, they can not compete in the wider market.

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    Ключові слова: Marketing / management / fish meatballs / food

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