This study aims to investigate the indicators and changeability of the tourism industry in Americas, Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East and the most popular countries of that region as the Unites States, France, China, Morocco and the Unites Arab Emirates over the past three years. Based on data on tourist arrivals, tourism revenue and GDP of countries and using comparative analysis methods, it was found that the number of arrivals is not a key indicator of tourism income, and GDP data shows the importance of this sphere in the economies of that countries. The research results show how differently the tourism industry is developed in five regions and their countries and the price category for tourism service.

Анотація наукової статті з соціальної та економічної географії, автор наукової роботи - Zdor Svetlana, Chen Yan


Область наук:
  • Соціальна та економічна географія
  • Рік видавництва: 2019
    Журнал: European journal of economics and management sciences

    Наукова стаття на тему 'ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN TOURISM MARKET IN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE, AMERICAS, ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST'

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN TOURISM MARKET IN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE, AMERICAS, ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST»

    ?Section 4. Recreation Economics

    https://doi.org/10.29013/EJEMS-19-4-35-55

    Zdor Svetlana, Chen Yan,

    Master student, Northeast Forestry University,

    China, Harbin E-mail: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. Вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.

    ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN TOURISM MARKET IN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE, AMERICAS, ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

    Abstract. This study aims to investigate the indicators and changeability of the tourism industry in Americas, Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East and the most popular countries of that region as the Unites States, France, China, Morocco and the Unites Arab Emirates over the past three years. Based on data on tourist arrivals, tourism revenue and GDP of countries and using comparative analysis methods, it was found that the number of arrivals is not a key indicator of tourism income, and GDP data shows the importance of this sphere in the economies of that countries. The research results show how differently the tourism industry is developed in five regions and their countries and the price category for tourism service.

    Keywords: Tourism industry, tourism arrivals, tourism income, GDP.

    1. The role of tourism in the global market According to the annual World Tourism and Trav-

    Attention to tourism as a specific type of socio- el Council (WTTC) study, in 2018 the volume of the economic activity has been growing rapidly in recent tourism market reach USD 8.8 trillion. The industry decades around the world. It should also be noted has been growing, showing a 3.9% increase in money that the process of globalization, which was gain- in 2018. This is higher than growth rate of the world ing momentum with the development of means of economy (3.2% in 2018), and the growth rates of such communication throughout the history ofhumanity, sectors as healthcare (+ 3.1%), information technolo-gained its scale and intensity in the second half ofthe gy (+ 1.7%), financial services (+1.7 %). Only industry twentieth century. sector is faster than tourism (+ 4%) in 2018.

    As known, organizational legal registration of According to WTTC, the share of income from this process took place in 1994 when the world trade foreign tourists increased from 27.3% in 2017 to organization was established, whose activities, pri- 28.8% in 2018. This means that 71.2% of the global marily in the economic sphere, fully extended to the tourism market is generated by domestic tourists. tourism sector. In terms of employment, the travel, the travel and

    tourism sector supported 319 million jobs, or every tenth job in the world in 2018.

    According to WTTC forecasts, over the next ten years, tourism and travel sector will create 100 million new jobs. (According to wttc.org). 1.1 Global arrivals and income The beginning of mass tourism is associated with the internationalization of all spheres of public life,

    The top 10 destinations receive 40% of worldwide arrivals. According to the diagram 1, the largest increase in tourists was in Turkey (22%), in second place Thailand (8%), Italy in third place (7%) compared to 2017. United Kingdom lost 4% compared 2017 (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition)

    For convenience, all tourist spots are divided into four regions: Europe, Americas, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. In 2018 the most popular region was Europe. All regions have different tourism indicators in tourist arrivals over the past years.

    There are changes in tourist arrivals in each region for the last 3 years. Tourist arrivals in all regions are ab-

    improving living standards, increasing free time, changes in transport and communications. International tourist arrivals grew 5% in 2018 to reach the 1.4 billion mark. This figure was reached two years ahead of UNWTO forecast. (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition). France remains the most visited country and open top 10 destination:

    22

    solutely not the same. On the diagram we can see how the number of tourist arrivals changed for every region.

    According to the diagram 2, in 2018 Europe has 710 million arrivals and + 5% tourist growth (8% in 2017); 216 million tourist visited Americas in 2018 and it is + 2% of tourist growth (+ 5% in 2017); Asia and the Pacific had 348 million arrivals, + 7% tourist growth (+ 6% in 2017), Africa had 67 million arrivals, + 7% tourist growth (+ 9% in 2017); and Middle East had only 60 million arrivals, + 5% tourist growth (the same as in 2017).

    On average, about 51% of all international tourist trips are in Europe, about 25% - in Asia and the Pacific, 24% - in other regions in 2018.

    m II Hon Arrivals In top destl nations% c hange

    France

    Spain 1

    United States of America 1 4

    China 1 4

    Italy Turkey Mexico I5

    Germany 1 4

    Thailand

    United Kingdom -4

    Diagram 1. Top ten destinations by international tourist arrivals, 2018 Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

    Diagram 2. Changes of tourist arrivals in every region from 2016 to 2018 (million).

    According to UNWTO

    Diagram 3. International tourist arrivals, 2018 (% share)

    This chart shows that more than half of tourist and national economy, contributing to the develop-

    arrivals are in Europe in 2018, on the second posi- ment of regions.

    tion is Asia and the Pacific and the third is Americas. Direct income is the income received from real Income is also an important indicator of tourism money spent by tourists for hotel, food, drinks, transdevelopment in the region. Nowadays income from port, entertainments, etc., in the country or in any tourism accelerates the investment process not only other districts. The income of a region are taxes paid in tourism, but also in other sectors of the regional from this revenue.

    With the development of international tourism, the tourism industry of industrialized countries is quickly growing, which include the hotel industry, transport, food, footwear, clothing and other industries are involved. Increasing the demand for medical car, the development of handicraft industries specializing in the manufacture of souvenirs is stimulated, new jobs also appear, increases the income.

    Export earnings from international tourism are an important source of foreign revenues for many destinations in the world. Tourism is an important component of export diversification both for emerging and advanced economies, with a strong

    ~ 600 O

    According to the diagram 4, Europe has the highest income: USD570 billion for 2018 and + 5% of growth compare 2017 (USD 519 billion), Asia and the Pacific reached USD435 billion and + 7% growth of income (USD390 billion in 2017) . Americas income in 2018 was USD334 billion and almost does not have growth (USD326 billion in 2017). Low-

    capacity to reduce trade deficits and to compensate for weaker export revenues from other goods and services. 2018 saw an extra USD121 billion in export revenues from international tourism (travel and passenger transport) compared to 2017. In 2018, tourism generated USD5 billion a day and reached USD1.7 trillion exports from international tourism (USD1.5 trillion receipts in destination + USD256 billion passenger transport) and it is 7% of global export and 29% of world's services export. (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights, 2019 edition). In all tourist regions the situation with tourism income over the last three years is different.

    570

    Years

    | Middle East

    est income in 2018 had Africa (USD 38 billion and + 2% of growth) and Middle East (USD73 billion and + 4% of growth).

    There are top 10 countries who has highest income from tourism in 2018. The top 10 tourism earners account for almost 50% of total tourism receipts.

    Diagram 4. Changes of income from tourism in every region from 2016 to 2018 (USD billion). According to UNWTO

    USD billion Top tourism earners% change (real terms)

    214

    74 67 63

    52

    49 | 45 43 41 40

    United States of America Spain France Thailand United Kingdom Italy Australia Germany Japan China

    11

    19

    21

    Diagram 5. Top ten destinations by tourism income, 2018 Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

    The first place took The USA (USD214 billion), the same as in 2017, but growth was only + 2%, on the second position is Spain (USD74 billion), and in third position is the leader in tourist arrivals - France (USD67 billion). The highest growth had China (+ 21%) and Japan (+ 19%).

    In order for better understanding the tourism situation in each region, making a detailed review of these five regions.

    1.2 Arrivals and income in Europe Europe for long years is the leader on tourist arrivals. In 2018, there were over 700 million international tourist arrivals to Europe, an increase of 5% over 2017. In 2018, the top ten destinations in Europe were:

    Diagram 6. The most visited countries in Europe for 2017 year (million arrivals). According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the diagram 6, France became the leader in arrivals in Europe in 2018 (89.4 million persons), on the second place is Spain (82.8 million persons) and the third is Italy (62.1 million arrivals). Compared to 2017, the number ofvisits to each country in Europe increased. The largest increases in

    tourist attractions have Turkey (24.7% growth), Portugal (7.5% growth) and Greece (10.8% grow), but United Kingdom have lowering the number of tourists compare 2017 (minus 3.5%). For France tourist arrivals increased only for 2.9% growth. (According UNWTO).

    2016 2017 2018 Years

    Diagram 7. Statistics of arrivals in Europe over the past three years (Million). According UNWTO

    According to the diagram 7.710 million tourists visited Europe in 2018, which is 5% more than in 2017 (672 million tourists) and in 2016 were 616 million tourists. It shows us annual increase in tourists in Europe.

    Europe remains the most popular destination for travelers: 710 million arrivals (+ 5% growth in 2018) and USD570 billion in expenses (+ 5% in 2018). This

    is big increase in absolute figures. From all the tourist regions of the world, the European countries show the most impressive growth in the number of arrivals. Italy and Spain have recorded 6 million visits plus to the figures of 2017. France is the undisputed leader. 89.4 million arrivals and USD67.3 billion in revenues. There is the income of the 10 most visited Europe countries for 2018.

    Diagram 8. Tourism income in Europe by most visited countries for 2018 (USD billion) According to statistic of UNWTO

    In Europe, Spain brought the highest income in rope for income (USD 67.3 billion), lowest income 2018 (USD 74 billion), but France was on the top had Russia (USD 12 billion). position in arrivals and on the second place in Eu-

    Diagram 9. Income from tourism in Europe over the past three years (USD billion). (According to UNWTO)

    According to the diagram 9, tourism income tourism, it can be concluded that tourism in Europe in Europe is constantly growing. In 2018, tourism is constantly developing.

    revenue reached USD 570 billion and + 5% growth compare 2017 (USD 519 billion).

    According to the data for the last three years about tourist arrivals in Europe and receipts from

    1.3 Arrivals and income in Americas

    In 2018, there were 216 million international tourist arrivals to the Americas, an increase of 2%. In 2018, the top ten destinations were

    Diagram 10. The most visited countries in Americas for 2018 (million arrivals). According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the chart the largest number of tourists. Mexico on the second place with 41.4 mil-tourists visited the United States - 79.6 million of lion arrivals and Canada get third place in America

    region with 21.1 million arrivals in 2018. Compared growth). For USA tourist arrivals increased only for

    to 2017, the number of visits to each country in 3.5%. (According UNWTO).

    Americas increased. The largest increases in tour- Over the past three years, the number of tourists

    ist attractions have Peru (4.4% growth), Colombia visiting Americas has continuously increased. But

    (7.4% growth) and Dominican Republic (6.2% North America remains the most popular part.

    2016 2017 2018

    Diagram 11. Statistics of arrivals in Americas over the past three years (Million). According UNWTO

    Over the past three years, the number of tourists arriving in Americas growing. In 2016 tourist growth was 3.5% (199 million arrivals), in 2017 tourist growth was 4% (211 million arrivals), in 2018 tourist growth was 2% (216 million arrivals).

    The most profitable per traveler is Americas: around 216 million arrivals (+ 2% growth) account for USD334 billion of income in 2018. There is the income of the 10 most visited Americas countries for 2018.

    USA Mexico Canada Argentina Brazil Chile

    Dominican Republic Peru

    Colombia Costa Rica

    Diagram 12. Tourism income in Americas for 2018 (USD billion) According to statistic of UNWTO

    Statistics show that the main income of America it is almost the same revenue as in Canada (USD 22

    in 2018 comes from the United States (USD 214.75 billion), while the rest ofthe countries have a relatively

    billion) and it is more than 60% of all tourism income low profits from tourism (Argentina - USD 5.6 billion,

    in Americas. Mexico reached USD 22.5 billion) and Chile - USD 3 billion, Peru - USD 3.8 billion etc.).

    Diagram 13. Income from tourism in Americas over the past three years (USD billion). (According to UNWTO)

    According to preliminary data, in 2018 Americas earns USD 334 billion. For the past three years income is constantly growing.

    In accordance with all the data, it can be summarized that tourism in most of the countries of Americas is developing, but the highest revenue

    is in the USA (almost 70% from all Americas revenue).

    1.4 Arrivals and income in Asia and the Pacific

    In 2018, there were over 348 million international tourist arrivals to Asia and the Pacific, an increase of 7% over 2017. In 2018, the top ten destinations were:

    Diagram 14. The most visited countries in Asia and the Pacific for 2018 year (million arrivals). According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the chart the largest proportion of to each country in Asia and the Pacific increased. The tourists came in China in 2018 (63 million visitors), largest increases in tourist attractions have South Ko-vacation by the sea in Thailand choose 38.2 million rea (15.1% growth), India (12.1% grow) and Thailand tourists and 31.2 million tourists were interested in Ja- (11% growth) compare 2017. For China tourist arpan in 2018. Compared to 2017, the number ofvisits rivals increased only for 3.6% (According UNWTO).

    Diagram 15. Statistics of arrivals in Asia and the Pacific region over the past three years (According to UNWTO)

    According to the diagram 9, 348 million tourists choose Asia and the Pacific region in 2018, which is 7% more than in previous year (323 million for 2017). But in 2017 tourist's growth was 5.6%. This diagram shows annual increase in tourists to the Asia and the Pacific region.

    One of the popular regions for tourists is the Asian and Pacific: 348 million arrivals and earning

    more than USD390 billion. But tourists from China are leaders both in the number of trips and in the amount of cash abroad. In 2018, they accounted for USD 257.7 billion spent on tourism - plus 4.9% compared to last year. There is the income of the 10 most visited countries in Asia and the Pacific for 2018.

    Diagram 16. Tourism income in Asia and the Pacific for 2018 (USD billion) According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the diagram 16, in Asia and the from tourism comes from Thailand (63 USD billion) Pacific region, on average, one country has income and China (USD 32.6 billion). from 20 to 40 USD billion. But the main income

    Diagram 17. Income from tourism in Asia and the Pacific region over the past three years (USD billion). According to UNWTO

    In 2016 the was highest growth for Asia and the Pacific (+ 30%) and income reached USD367 billion, in 2018 tourism revenue reached USD435 billion and income growth was + 7%.

    In accordance with all the data, it can be summarized that tourism in Asia and the Pacific is developing very rapidly showing good indicators both in the growth in the number of tourist arrivals and in tourism revenue.

    1.5 Arrivals and income in Africa

    The number of foreign tourists visiting Africa, and the proceeds from them are relatively small and only 2-3% from total global. In 2018, in Africa were 67,1 million arrivals what is 7% more than in previous year (63 million in 2017). But Africa does not yet have a list of ten countries that have more than a million tourist arrivals. For the moment there are only eight:

    Diagram 18. The most visited countries in Africa for 2018 year (million arrivals). According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the diagram 18, it showed that the last year. The highest growth has Tunisia (17.7%) most popular country in Africa in 2018 was Morocco and Uganda (31.9). In common, 67.1 million arrivals and it had 8.3% growth of tourists compares with

    were in whole Africa and it is even less than had France in 2018.

    Despite low rates, over the past three years the number of tourist arrivals in Africa has increased.

    Diagram 19. Statistics of arrivals in Africa over the past three years (million).

    According to UNWTO

    In 2016, Africa had 58 million arrivals, in 2017- Tourism revenue from Africa's countries is very 63 million arrivals (8.6% growth), in 2018-67.1 mil- law compared to Europe, Americas and Asia and lion arrivals (7% growth) . Over the past three years, the Pacific. This is due to the fact that the govern-the number of tourist arrivals in Africa is constantly ment pays little attention to the development of the growing. tourism industry. In 2018, only 5 countries in Africa

    reached tourism income of more than USD1 billion:

    Diagram 20. Tourism income in Africa for 2018 (USD billion) According to statistic of UNWTO

    Africa's main tourism revenue comes from Mo- European countries, and South Africa the service is rocco (USD7,8 billion) and South Africa (USD9 much more expensive than in other countries of the billion), because Morocco is popular among some region.

    Despite the low income of countries, tourism revenues, like international tourism arrivals, have been slowly but increasing over the past three years.

    Diagram 21. Income from tourism in Africa over the past three years (USD billion).

    According to UNWTO

    In 2016, tourism income in Africa was USD35 billion and had 3% growth; in 2017, revenue reached USD 37 billion and for 2018 tourism revenue reached USD 38 billion and had only 2% growth.

    Africa is very perspective region for tourism, but there are some factors such as the disadvantage of some countries, underdevelopment of tourism, service and transport reduce the level of tourists visit-

    ing in this region. However, every year number of arrivals increase.

    1.6 Arrivals and income in the Middle East

    In 2018, there were over 60.5 million international tourist arrivals in the Middle East, an increase of 4.7% over 2017. In 2018, the Middle East has only 6 countries who has number of arrivals more than one million:

    Diagram 22. The most visited countries in the Middle East for 2018 year (million arrivals). According to statistic of UNWTO

    According to the diagram 22, the most visited of tourist arrivals and reached 15.3 million arrivals.

    place was Arab Emirates - 16 million arrivals, but Qatar lost in 2018 19.4% of growth and reached only

    only 0.8% growth compare 2017. Egypt had the 1,8 million arrivals (2.3 million in 2017).

    highest growth (36.8%) compare 2017, but only Despite losses in arrivals of some countries, the

    11.3 million arrivals. Saudi Arabia lost 5.1% growth rate of arrivals in the Middle East continues to grow.

    Diagram 23. Statistics of arrivals in the Middle East over the past three years (million). According to UNWTO

    In 2017, the Middle East had over 58.3 million Tourism income in the Middle East is not as large

    arrivals and it is 4.6% more than in 2016 (55.6 mil- as in another region. Only six countries have a big

    lion arrivals). In 2018, number of arrivals was grown number of tourist arrivals and only three of them

    for 4.7% and reached 60.5 million arrivals. have a big income:

    Diagram 24. Tourism income in the Middle East for 2018 (USD billion) According to statistic of UNWTO

    According the diagram 24, in 2018 the most profit- ism income ofthe Middle East. Saudi Arabia had 16.5% able country in the Middle East was the United Arab of income for this region (USD 12 billion) and Egypt Emirates (USD 21.3 billion) and it is 30% of all tour- 15.9% from tourism region income (USD 11.6 billion).

    Tourism income over the past three years in In 2017, income in the Middle East reached USD68

    the Middle of the East is less than in Americas, billion what is USD10 billion more than in 2016 and

    Europe and the Asia and the Pacific, but more than had + 13% growth. In 2018, the Middle East earned

    in Africa. from tourism USD73 billion and had + 4% growth.

    Diagram 25. Income from tourism three years (USD billion)

    Based on the data, it can be concluded that some countries in the Middle East have a good base for the development of tourism. Today, tourism in the Middle East is better developed than in Africa, but worse than in other regions.

    2. Tourism in France, the USA, China, Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.

    Tourism in each region is developed differently. This is also noticeable in the leader countries in each region. France has the first place for tourist arrivals, the USA is the leader of tourism revenues, in China tourism is developing rapidly and, according to UNWTO forecasts, could overtake France in terms of the number of tourist arrivals soon. While Morocco and the United Arab Emirates are behind them both in the number of tourists and in income.

    The chart 26 shows the arrival of tourists in France, the USA, China, the United Arab Emirates over the past three years. According to statistics, it noticed that there is big difference in tourist arriv-

    in the Middle East over the past According to UNWTO

    als in Morocco, Utd Arab Emirates and France, the USA, China. In 2018, France had 89,4 million arrivals (87 million in 2017, 83 million in 2016), + + 2.9% tourist arrivals increase (in 2017 + 5.1%), the USA had 80 million arrivals (77 million in 2017, 75.6 million in 2016), + 3.5% growth (in 2017 + + 0.7%), China had 63 million arrivals (61 million in 2017, 59.3 million in 2016), + 3.6% growth (in 2017 + Morocco had 12.3 million arrivals

    + 2.

    (11.3 million in 2017, 10.3 million in 2016), + 8.3% growth (in 2017 + 9.8%), the United Arab Emirates had 16 million international arrivals (15.8 million in 2017,15 million in 2016), + 0,8% growth (in 2017 + 6.2%). France is popular among neighboring countries and attracts tourists with its architecture; the United States has an excellent level of service. In China, most of the tourists come from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Most of the tourists in Morocco arrive from European countries and in the United Arab Emirates the tourism industry is well developed, but it has a high price.

    Diagram 26. Statistic of tourist arrivals for countries over the past three years (million). According to UNWTO

    Despite the number of arrivals, France ranks revenue. Over the past three years, the United States second in the top five countries in terms of tourism remains the leader in tourism income.

    Diagram 27. Income from tourism in France, the USA, China, Morocco and the Utd Arab Emirates over the past three years (USD billion). According to UNWTO

    The chart 27 shows income from tourism in France, the USA, China, the United Arab Emirates over the past three years. According to statistics, the United States has the first position during three years. Lowest tourism income in Morocco. In 2018, France had USD 67 billion of revenue from tourism and this is 11.8% of all tourism income in Europe over the past year (USD 61 billion in 2017, USD 42.5 billion in 2016);

    in the United States income has reached USD 214,5 billion, 64.3% of all revenue in Americas from tourism in the last year (USD 211 in 2017, USD 206 in 2016); in China tourism revenue in 2018 is USD 40.3 billion and this is 9.3% ofall income from tourism in Asia and the Pacific (USD 39 billion in 2017, USD 44.4 billion in 2016); in Morocco tourism revenue is USD 7.8 billion and 20.2% ofall income in Africa (USD 7.4 billion

    in 2017, USD 6.5 billion in 2016); and in the United tic products (GDP) is a monetary measure of the

    Arab Emirates the income is USD 21.4 billion in 2018 and 29.3% of all revenue in the Middle East (USD 21 billion in 2017, USD 19.5 billion in 2016).

    GDP of countries also shows the level of money generated and effects the economy. Gross domes-

    market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. Tourism revenues are also part of the country's total GDP. Diagram 28 shows GDP of countries:

    Diagram 28. GDP of France, the USA, China, Morocco and the Utd Arab Emirates in 2018 (USD million). According statistictimes. com data

    Statistics show the GDP level in France, the United States, China, Morocco and the United Arab Emirates in 2018. Based on the data the highest level ofGDP in the United States (USD 20 trillion) and this is the first position in the world statistics of the GDP countries; in second place China (USD 13 trillion), the second place in the world statistics; in the third place France (USD 2.7 trillion) and the sixth position in the world. GDP in Morocco (USD 118 billion, sixtieth position in the world statistics) and the United Arab Emirates (USD 769 billion, the eighteenth position in the world) did not reach one trillion dollars in 2018.

    Summing up, despite the fact that France ranks first in terms of tourist arrivals, it is on the second place in terms of tourism revenues and third in terms of GDP. The USA got the second place in tourist arrivals, but first place in tourism income and GDP. China ranks third in term of tourist arrivals and tour-

    ism revenue, but on the second place in the country's GDP. Morocco and the United Arab Emirates take the last places by all criteria.

    3. Comparative analysis

    France, the United States, China, Morocco and the United Arab Emirates are leading countries in their region. However, their income and tourist arrivals are not the same. The United States on the first place in the world in revenue from tourism, and France on the first place in tourist arrivals. Moreover, GDP of France in the five countries is only in third place and sixth in the world ranking. To identify the differences and their possible causes, it was made the comparative analysis of that five countries.

    To understand the difference in profit from tourism, first it needs to find out how much one tourist spends in the country in 2018. To do this, divide the tourism income by the number of tourist arrivals.

    Table 1.

    Arrivals (mil. Person) Income (USD billion) 1 person spent (USD)

    The United States 79.6 214.5 2695

    France 89.4 67.3 753

    China 63 40.3 640

    Morocco 12.3 7.8 634

    Utd Arab Emirates 16 21.4 1338

    Calculation of the average amount spent in each ism revenue and in the spending of one tourist, but

    country by one person in 2018. the United Arab Emirates is on the fourth position

    According to (Table 1), the highest the largest of tourism revenue and on the second position in the

    amount of money one tourist spends in the United spending of one tourist.

    States (USD 2695) and the United Arab Emirates In order to find out why one tourist spends a dif-

    (USD 1338), in France average amount spent by ferent amount ofmoney in each country, it is neces-

    one person was USD 753, in China USD 640 and sary to analyze the average price of tourist services

    USD 634 in Morocco. The USA leads both in tour- in each country:

    Table 2.

    Hotel for 1day (USD) Food for 1 day (USD) Bottled water for 1 day (USD) Local transport (taxis, local buses, subway) (USD) Entertainment (Entrance tickets, shows) (USD) Travel between cities (USD) Alcohol (drinks for 1 day) (USD) Average daily cost per person, per day (USD)

    The USA 104 42 14 36 51 147 19 223

    France 96 34 2.68 26 28 48 11 161

    China 30 19 0.83 15 10 35 5.8 67

    Morocco 21 12 1.86 4.13 5.37 11 6.51 41

    Utd Arab Emirates 136 41 78 16 15 17 18 276

    Average travel prices in the USA, France, China, Morocco, Utd Arab Emirates (USD). According to Budgetyourtrip.com.

    According to (Table 2), the most expensive countries for vacation are the United States and the United Arab Emirates. Morocco is the cheapest country for tourists. In the United States for one week in average one tourist spends around USD тисячі п'ятсот шістьдесят чотири and USD 6705 for one month; in France one tourist spends for one week USD 1131 and for one month USD 4847; in China one tourist spends for one week USD 459 and for

    one month USD 1965; in Morocco for one week one tourist spends USD 286 and USD 1225 for one month; in the United Arab Emirates one tourist spends for one week USD 1929 and USD 8268 for one month. This is the average prices for all countries and this amount may vary depending on the needs of the tourist. All of these prices are calculated from the budgets of real travelers (According to Budgetyourtrip.com).

    An indicator of the level of well-being in a country is GDP. To find out what proportion of tourism income in the total GDP of a country it needs:

    Income from tourism GDP

    * 100

    This formula shows what share of tourism profits in the country's total GDP. It needs to take data for 2018 on GDP of each country and on tourism revenue. Table 3.

    GDP (USD billion) Income from tourism (USD billion) Percentage of tourism income in GDP

    France 2.796 67.3 2.41

    The USA 20.513 214.5 1.04

    China 13.457 40.3 0.2

    Morocco 118 7.8 6.6

    Utd Arab Emirates 769 21.4 2.78

    Indicator of the share of tourism revenue in the country's total GDP in 2018.

    According to (Table 30, the highest share of tourism income in the country's total GDP in Morocco (6.6%), in France 2.41%, in the United States 1.04%, in the United Arab Emirates 2.78% and the smallest percentage in China ( 0.2%). This is a percentage of tourism revenue in the country's total GDP, which shows how important the tourism industry is to the country's economy. The higher the percentage, the more important tourism is for the country's economy. Thus, to summarize that for these five countries, the tourism industry plays the largest role in the Morocco economy, while the share of tourism in the Chinese economy is very small.

    Summing up the analysis, France ranks first in terms of tourism arrivals, but not in terms of revenue from tourism and GDP of country (the sixth position in the world); the share of the tourism industry in the country's GDP is 2.41%. The USA has 9 million less tourist arrivals than France, but it ranks first in terms of tourism revenue and GDP (the first place in the world ranking); the share of the tourism industry in the country's GDP 1.04%. China has the second place in the world ranking of GDP and has the smallest share of tourism in the country's GDP. Tourism revenues in Morocco are small compared to other countries, but the share of tourism in the country's GDP is largest than in another four countries,

    which means that tourism is more important there for economy. The United Arab Emirates have average indicators for all parameters. The share of tourism in the country's total GDP is 2.78%. Conclusion

    This article examined four global tourist areas: Europe, Americas, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. Also, the most popular country for tourists was selected from each region. The comparative analysis was made, which revealed the country with the highest income from tourism, the country with the highest number of tourist arrivals, the country whose GDP is more dependent on tourism than others, and made it possible to find out how much one tourist spends on average for his trip in each country and the average prices for tourist service in all countries. The data on tourism arrivals, tourism income, GDP of countries over the past three years have been collected.

    According to the data, Europe has been in first place for tourist arrivals over the past three years: 710 million tourist arrivals in 2018 and + 5% growth and this is 51% of all world arrivals. Europe also comes first in terms of tourism revenue: USD 570 billion and + 5% growth in 2018. France was chosen from Europe, as this country is the leader in tourist arrivals both in Europe and in the world: 89.4 million of tourist arrivals in 2018 (+ 2.9%). France ranks second from these five countries in tourism

    revenue and ranks third in the world: USD 67 billion and this is 11,8% of all tourism income in Europe. This country has the sixth place in the world in total GDP (USD 2.7 trillion) and the share of tourism income in the country's total GDP is 2.41%. On average, a tourist spends USD 753 in his trip and about USD 161 per one day.

    In second place for tourist arrivals and income is Asia and the Pacific. In 2018, number of tourist arrivals reached 348 million (25% of all worlds arrivals), and the growth was 7%. Tourism revenue in 2018 was USD 435 billion and 7% growth. In Asia and the Pacific region, China was selected for analysis. In 2018, China had 63 million tourist arrivals and this is the fourth place in the world ranks (+ 3.6% growth), and revenue from tourism was USD 40.3 billion, 10th place in the world in tourism revenue (9.3% of all income from tourism in Asia and the Pacific). In terms of tourism arrivals and tourism income, China on the third place from the five analyzed countries. In China a tourist spends USD 640 on average per trip, and average tourist spending per day is USD 67. China is in second place in world ranking by GDP (USD 13 trillion) and the share of tourism income in the country's total GDP is 0.2 % (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition).

    Now the Chinese Government has launched a new tourism policy, with the aim of significantly enhancing tourism development in the country and establishing China's tourism industry as a significant economic force in China's domestic and international tourism markets. This new policy document gives an insight into the modernization and development of China's tourism industry. In common with many national tourism policies, including the latest UK Tourism Policy, it makes no mention of China's outbound tourism sector, and focuses wholly on the development of the national tourism product. Despite the widely held perception that China does things differently to the rest of the world, this is actually a very orthodox form of tourism policy. It concen-

    trates on product diversification and development and contains some standard aims to increase education and training and to improve tourist information. This policy takes a very broad overview of the Chinese tourism industry, aiming to increase quality and diversity in all of its aspects. The lack of a clear set of targets or implementation plans in the policy document means that it will be difficult to evaluate it is success, but the strength of the central Chinese state suggest that the many of the aspirational aims of the policy will be funded and delivered and that this will be carried out on an immense scale. (Source: James Kennell. China's new tourism policy 2013-2020. April 2, 2013)

    Americas ranks third in tourist arrivals and it is 15% of all tourism arrivals (216 million in 2018; + 2%) and tourism revenue (USD 334 billion; + 0%). The most popular country in Americas among tourists is the United States ofAmerica. In 2018, the USA received 80 million tourist arrivals (+ 3,5% growth); and revenue from tourism reached USD 214 billion. The United States ranks the third position in world ranking in terms of tourism arrivals, and in first place in terms of tourism income. In the Unites States one tourist spends USD 2695 per trip and USD 223 per day. By GDP, the United States ranks first in the world ranking: USD 20 trillion, and the share of tourism income in the country's total GDP is 1.04%. (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition).

    The Middle East had 60 million tourist arrivals in 2018, and + 5% of the increase. This is a very small number compared to other regions, only 4% of all tourist arrivals. Income from tourism in 2018 amounted to USD73 billion (+ 4%). The Middle East ranks last in tourist arrivals, yielding to the African region, but ahead Africa in tourism revenue. In the Middle East was selected the United Arab Emirates. In 2018, number oftourism arrivals in the Unites Arab Emirates was 16 million (+0.8), and revenue reached USD 21.4 billion. Prices for tourist services in the United Arab Emirates are similar to prices in the United States. It

    is one of the most expensive countries for tourists. One tourist spends on average USD 1338 per trip and USD 276 per day. GDP of the country takes the eighteenth place in the world ranking (USD 769 billion), and the share of tourism income in the country's total GDP is 2.78. (According to UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition).

    Most tourism to the UAE has been concentrated in Dubai and to a lesser extent Abu Dhabi. Now, the other Emirates are actively developing their tourism product offerings, providing visitors with different tourism opportunities in the process. The WTTC benchmarking study shows that [travel and tourism's] contribution to employment in the region is now larger than financial services, manufacturing and mining, and the sector is growing faster than retail and mining. For example, the UAE signed a short-stay visa waiver agreement with the European Union (EU) in May 2015 року, providing visa-free travel for EU citizens to the UAE and for Emiratis travelling to the EU, for up to 90 days in any 180-day period. (Source: Fanack.com; Economic Diversification Policy Sees Big Investments in UAE's Tourism Industry; January 18, 2018).

    References

    There were totally 67 million tourist arrivals in Africa in 2018 (+ 7% growth) and it is only 5% of all tourism arrivals; and tourism revenue was USD 38 billion (+ 2%), this is the last position in the world. Morocco was selected from the Africa's countries because of the highest number of tourist arrivals in this region (12.3 million; + 8.3% growth). In 2018, tourism revenue in Morocco was USD 7.8 billion. One tourist spends USD 634 per trip and USD 41 per day. The country's GDP is on the sixtieth place in the world ranking and is only USD 118 billion. The share of tourism income in the country's total GDP is 6.6%, and this is means that the tourism industry in this country is important for the economy.

    Based on the data, it can be summarized that the tourism industry in different countries and regions is developed differently. Moreover, tourism income is not related to the number of tourism arrivals. In general, world indicators and indicator of tourists and the profits of individual countries show that the tourism sector continues to develop everywhere, increasing the contribution of the economies of countries.

    1. URL: https://www.wttc.org/economic-impact/country-analysis/

    2. UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2019 edition

    3. UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2018 edition

    4. UNWTO International Tourism Highlights 2017 edition

    5. Budgetyourtrip.com.

    6. James Kennell. China's new tourism policy 2013-2020. April 2, 2013.

    7. Fanack.com; Economic Diversification Policy Sees Big Investments in UAE's Tourism Industry; January 18, 2018.


    Ключові слова: Tourism industry / tourism arrivals / tourism income / GDP.

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