The article deals with topical issues such as the analysis of the daily schedule of electric load, the calculation of the loss of the transformer and power supply house cabling and economic substantiation of the replacement, if necessary, of the transformer and the cable line. After all, the unevenness of power consumption, as well as the underloaded transformers leads to great losses of idling, which in turn causes excessive losses not only in the transformer, but in the whole power system and large economic losses for the power supply company.

Анотація наукової статті з електротехніки, електронної техніки, інформаційних технологій, автор наукової роботи - Temnikov E.A., Leskov I.A., Kalimullin A.T., Grabovetskaya K.A.


АНАЛІЗ ДОБОВОЇ ГРАФІКА ЕЛЕКТРИЧНОЇ НАВАНТАЖЕННЯ ЖИТЛОВОГО БУДИНКУ. РОЗРАХУНОК ВТРАТ ЕЛЕКТРОЕНЕРГІЇ ДЛЯ ТРАНСФОРМАТОРА І КАБЕЛЬНОЇ ЛІНІЇ

У статті розглянуті такі актуальні питання, як аналіз добового графіка електричного навантаження, розрахунок втрат електроенергії трансформатора і живильної багатоквартирний будинок кабельної лінії і економічне обґрунтування заміни, в разі необхідності, даного трансформатора і кабельної лінії. Адже нерівномірність електроспоживання, а так само недовантаження трансформатора призводить до великих втрат холостого ходу, що в свою чергу викликає зайві втрати не тільки в самому трансформаторі, а й у всій системі харчування і великі економічні збитки для електропостачальної компанії.


Область наук:

  • Електротехніка, електронна техніка, інформаційні технології

  • Рік видавництва: 2016


    Журнал: Міжнародний науково-дослідний журнал


    Наукова стаття на тему 'ANALYSIS OF THE DAILY SCHEDULE OF ELECTRIC LOAD OF A HOUSE. CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC POWER LOSS FOR TRANSFORMER AND CABLE LINES '

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «ANALYSIS OF THE DAILY SCHEDULE OF ELECTRIC LOAD OF A HOUSE. CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC POWER LOSS FOR TRANSFORMER AND CABLE LINES »

    ?4. Хуснутдинов Д.З., Султанов Р.Г., Яруллин Ч.А., Ільїн А.І., Сайфеев Т.Р. Аналіз ефективності автоматичного демпфуючого пристрою гідроприводу рульового механізму двухзвенного транспортера «Витязь» // Нафтогазова справа. 2014. № 12-1. С. 149-153.

    5. Яцун С.Ф., Чжо Пьо Вей, Хлопчиків А.В., Тарасова Е.С., Математичне моделювання мобільного гусеничного робота, Известия Південно-Західного державного університету. - 2011. - №1 (34). - С. 10-17.

    6. Шариков Н.В., Моделювання керованого руху маніпулятора, Известия ТулГУ. Технічні науки, 2013, №9, частина 1,

    Список літератури латинськими символами / References in Roman script

    1. Il'in AI, Celishhev VA, Pugin AM, Husnutdinov DZ, Jarullin Ch.A., Sajfeev TR, Sravnitel'nyj analiz nelinejnostej matematicheskoj modeli rulevogo mehanizma dvuhzvennogo transportera «Vitjaz '» s gidravlicheskoj obratnoj svjazju [The comparative analysis of nonlinearities of a mathematical model of the steering mechanism of two track crawler transporter "Vityaz" with hydraulic feedback] // Vestnik UGATU [Ufa State Aviation Technical University Bulletin]. - 2013. - V. 17. - № 4 (56). -P. 167-176.

    2. Il'in A.I., Sajfeev T.R., Celishhev V.A., Husnutdinov D.Z., Jarullin Ch.A. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie rulevogo mehanizma dvuhzvennogo transportera «Vitjaz '» s gidravlicheskoj obratnoj svjazju [Mathematical modeling of the steering mechanism of two track crawler transporter "Vityaz" with hydraulic feedback] // Vestnik UGATU [Ufa State Aviation Technical University Bulletin]. - 2013. - V. 17. - №1 (54). - P. 73-78.

    3. Iljasov B.G, Husnutdinov D.Z., Jarullin Ch.A. Metod poluchenija imitacionnyh modelej dvizhenija dvuhzvennyh gusenichnyh transporterov «Vitjaz '» [Method of receiving simulation models of movement of two track crawler transporter "Vityaz"] // Vestnik UGATU [Ufa State Aviation Technical University Bulletin]. - 2016. - V. 20. - № 1 (71). - P. 20-25.

    4. Husnutdinov D.Z., Sultanov R.G., Jarullin Ch.A., Il'in A.I., Sajfeev T.R. Analiz jeffektivnosti avtomaticheskogo dempfirujushhego ustrojstva gidroprivoda rulevogo mehanizma dvuhzvennogo transportera «Vitjaz '» [The analysis of efficiency of the automatic damping hydraulic actuator device of the steering mechanism of two track crawler transporter "Vityaz"] // Neftegazovoe delo [Oil and gas business]. - 2014. - № 12-1. - P. 149-153.

    5. Jacun S.F., Chzho P'o Vej, Mal'chikov A.V., Tarasova E.S. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie mobil'nogo gusenichnogo robota [Mathematical modeling of the mobile caterpillar robot] // Izvestija Jugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Southwest State University]. - 2011. - № 1 (34). - P.10-17.

    6. Sharikov N.V. Modelirovanie upravljaemogo dvizhenija manipuljatora [Modeling of controlled movement of the pointing device] // Izvestija TulGU. Tehnicheskie nauki [Proceedings of Tula State University. Technical Sciences]. - 2013 - № 9. - P 1.

    DOI: 10.18454 / IRJ.2016.52.116

    Калимуллин А. Т.1, Лєсков І.А.2, Темников Е.А.3, Грабовецька К.А.4

    1 Аспірант, асистент кафедри Електропостачання промислових підприємств,

    2студент, Енергетичний факультет, 3студент, Енергетичний факультет, Омський Державний Технічний Університет

    АНАЛІЗ ДОБОВОЇ ГРАФІКА ЕЛЕКТРИЧНОЇ НАВАНТАЖЕННЯ ЖИТЛОВОГО БУДИНКУ. РОЗРАХУНОК ВТРАТ ЕЛЕКТРОЕНЕРГІЇ ДЛЯ ТРАНСФОРМАТОРА І КАБЕЛЬНОЇ ЛІНІЇ

    анотація

    У статті розглянуті такі актуальні питання, як аналіз добового графіка електричного навантаження, розрахунок втрат електроенергії трансформатора і живильної багатоквартирний будинок кабельної лінії і економічне обґрунтування заміни, в разі необхідності, даного трансформатора і кабельної лінії. Адже нерівномірність електроспоживання, а так само недовантаження трансформатора призводить до великих втрат холостого ходу, що в свою чергу викликає зайві втрати не тільки в самому трансформаторі, а й у всій системі харчування і великі економічні збитки для електропостачальної компанії.

    Ключові слова: добовий графік навантажень, кабельна лінія, втрати електроенергії, час окупності.

    Kalimullin A.T.1, Leskov I.A.2, Temnikov E.A.3, Grabovetskaya K.A.4 Postgraduate, assistant of the department of power supply for industrial enterprises, 2student, Energy Department,

    3student, Energy Department, Omsk State Technical University ANALYSIS OF THE DAILY SCHEDULE OF ELECTRIC LOAD OF A HOUSE. CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC POWER LOSS FOR TRANSFORMER AND CABLE LINES

    Abstract

    The article deals with topical issues such as the analysis of the daily schedule of electric load, the calculation of the loss of the transformer and power supply house cabling and economic substantiation of the replacement, if necessary, of the transformer and the cable line. After all, the unevenness of power consumption, as well as the underloaded transformers leads to great losses of idling, which in turn causes excessive losses not only in the transformer, but in the whole power system and large economic losses for the power supply company.

    Keywords: daily schedule loads, cable line, the loss of electricity, the payback time.

    For three-phase electricity meter readings (Table. 1) mounted on the input block of flats, the daily schedule of an e lectrical load of the building depicted in Figure 1. From the resulting graph shows that power consumption is uneven, consequently, the transformer and the power supply cable line losses occur. The calculation of the loss of data, and economic rationale replacement, if necessary, the transformer and the cable line.

    Table 1 - Electricity meter reading

    Time measurement, h 0 4 8 12 16 20 24

    Meter reading, kW-h 2210,3 2213,7 2218,2 2227,1 2233,8 2246,3 2255,1

    Initial data for the transformer and cable lines are shown in Table 2.

    Table 2 - Initial data transformer and the cable line

    Transformer TM- SHOM.TP, kV ^ A СОБф дрх, ДРкз, Uk, Ix,

    630/10 kVt kVt%%

    630 0,9 1,56 7,6 5,5 2

    Cable line L, m Ro, Om / km

    ABBr-4x95 60 0,32

    The daily schedule of an apartment house load is shown in Figure 1, six 4 - hour intervals averaging. The average power at each j-th interval based on the scale factor determined by the formula [1]

    P_ "j + 1

    At

    -xk

    П *

    (1)

    Daily charts show the change in load during the day. They build on the meter readings of active and reactive power every hour or every half hour (to detect a half-hour peak load).

    In the design using typical daily schedules are typical for this type of production, in which the daily maximum load is taken as unity or 100%, and the remaining load expressed as a decimal or a percentage. To build a specific daily schedule is necessary to know the maximum load, and have a typical daily schedule.

    For daily schedules of active and reactive loads are characterized by the following values: maximum active (reactive) load per day P'm (Q'm) kW (kvar), the most active load in the most loaded changing Pm kW consumption of active (reactive) energy per day Wcut (Vcut), kWh (kvar-h), consumption of active (reactive) power for the most loaded shift Wcm (Vcm), kWh (kvar-h).

    To determine the power consumption accounted transformer universal counter for any amount of time necessary difference in the readings taken at the beginning and end of this period, multiplied by a conversion factor.

    Conversion kn factor determined by the formula [2]

    kn = VK ",, 2)

    where KI - transformation ratio of current transformers;

    Ku - ratio voltage transformer.

    According to the requirements of GOST removable shields these counters must be the inscription "current transformer", "voltage transformer", "K ...." next to that subscriber are put ratio and conversion factor.

    Conversion factor equal to the counter 40 (including through current transformers with transformation ratio 200/5).

    P CpS®

    P -P

    id 12 14 16 ib 20 22 24

    Fig. 1 - The daily schedule of the apartment building load

    54

    The electricity consumed by the house for the day, by the difference between the first and the last counter readings of EE given conversion factor (transformation ratio) [1]

    W = (W6-W) xkn = (2255.1-2210.3) x40 = 1792 kVtxh ,

    or directly by summing the power schedule of electric load [1]

    6

    W = At ​​Z P = 4x (34 + 45 + 89 + 67 + 125 + 88) = 1792 kVtxh. j = l J

    We define indicators characterizing uneven electricity. Time use maximum [1]

    W 1792

    T ~ "= PT =" 125 ~ = тисяча чотиреста тридцять чотири ^

    max

    The value of the average load [1]

    and RMS power [1]

    "W 1792 w

    Pcp = - = - = 74.6 kVt,

    ср T 24

    Рср.кв. ^

    T ^ ^ 24 *

    'P.2 = J - (342 + 452 + 892 + 672 + 1252 +882) = 80.58kVt,

    allows you to define the schedule form factor [1]

    and the duty ratio of the daily schedule [1]

    рсркв_ = 80.58 = 1.08 ф рср 74.6

    k3 = i = 74.6 = 0.597

    3 p 125

    max

    The value of the latter can also be determined by using the peak load time [1]

    T_ 14.34

    Irregularity ratio of electricity [1]

    k = _ ™ «= -: - = 0.597 3 T 24

    P | 34

    k = -? nin _ = - = 0,272

    P 125

    max

    (3)

    (4)

    (5)

    (6)

    (7)

    (8)

    (9)

    (10)

    . (11) These figures reflect a significant ripple and low power consumption density in the apartment building during the day. The calculated energy loss in the transformer brands TM-630/10 and CL ABBr-4x95 are summarized in Table 3.

    Table 3 - The calculated value of the transformer and the mains cable line

    RMS power load, kVA 89,5

    The load factor of the transformer 0,142

    53 про § ° <2 m The number of hours of use maximum, h 5247

    The greatest losses time, h 3696

    та ^ o 1 s H н The losses of active energy in the transformer during the year, kVt-h 14269

    1 l-ч SS ^ Total cable resistance, Om 0,0192

    Rated current per hour maximum power grid, A 136

    bJ про Losses of electricity in the year cable, kVt-h 3938

    The calculation and feasibility study of the transformer replacement TM-630/10, installed on the substation Tn-1 transformer less power TM-160/10.

    After analyzing the graph of electrical loads determined that the rms power of the transformer TM-630/10 / 0,4 on Tn-1 is 89,5 kV-A.

    Consequently, the load factor of the transformer [3]

    S so s

    K3T = - ^ = 895 = 0,142. (12)

    S 630 ()

    T.HOM

    This shows that the transformer is actually underloaded, leading to large losses of idling. The loss of electrical energy in the transformer 630 kV-A comprise

    AWxpi = 14269 kVt-h / year,

    that in terms of money at the cost of 1 kW-h of electricity 3.32 RUB (for Omsk at the time of 06.25.16) will be [3]

    Q = CT xAW ^ = 3.32x14269 = 47373.1rub./year

    (13)

    Energy losses in the transformer TM-160/10 / 0,4 are given in Table 4.

    r (D Про RMS power load, kVA 89,5

    § S The load factor of the transformer 0,56

    ? s a 3 s ^ The greatest losses time, h 3696

    H ^ The losses of active energy in the transformer during the year, kVt-h 8035

    Note: Value obtained losses in the transformer TM-160/10 / 0.4 of [3]

    Q2 = Ct xA ^ 2 = 3.32x8035 = 26674.5rub. / Year

    It is necessary to determine the cost of installation work on the replacement of the transformer. Conventionally, we assume that it is an average of 30% of the cost of the transformer. The cost of the transformer TM-160/10 is 114.45 thousand. rub. Hence installation costs amount to

    31 = 0,3 114,45 = 34,33 thousand. rub. - the construction costs;

    32 = 114,45 thousand. rub. - transformer cost;

    The residual value of the replaced transformer (transformer cost of sales used adjusted for depreciation) of 30% of the cost of new transformer of the same power.

    K = 0,3 289,38 = 86,81 thousand. rub. - liquidation value of the replaced transformer. Payback time with the liquidation value of the replaced transformer

    3 + 3, - K 34,330 + 114,450-86,810 "

    TK = -: - 2 - = - = 3year

    0K Q.-Q, 47,373-26,675

    "<Tp1 "<Tp2 '' (15)

    We manufacture replacement ABBr-4x95 cable on the cable of larger cross section ABBr-4x120. Total cable resistance for a given length of 0.0152 ohms. A loss in the cable for the year amounted to 3113 kW-h. loss cost

    Qml = C xAWkji = 3.32x3938 = 13074rub. / Year

    Qm2 = CT xAW = 3.32x3113 = 10335rub. / Year

    31 = 300 60 = 18 thousand. rub. - installation costs (cost 250-300 rub./m. To Omsk);

    32 = 400 60 = 24 thousand. rub. - cable costs; Time payback cable replacement

    (16) (17)

    T 3t + З2 18 + 24

    Т = -1-- = - = 14 year

    ок Про - Про 13-10

    Окл1 Окл2 13 10 (18)

    Conclusion.

    Payback time of up to 6 years old is considered to be acceptable for the implementation of measures for replacement of equipment [4]. Since the basis of the result of the calculation, the replacement of the transformer TM - 630/10 by the transformer less power, payback time was 3 years, therefore, the calculation is made correctly and the event of replacement of the transformer is acceptable for implementation. In addition, the increase in electricity tariffs to further reduce the payback period over the years.

    It should also be noted that the operation of transformers at idle or close to it causes excessive loss not only in the transformer, and power throughout the system because of low power factor at idling transformer. However, the results obtained with respect to the replacement of the cable line is not suitable for implementation of activities, as Payback time was 14 years, which is very much.

    Список літератури / References

    1. Calculation of electrical loads, the choice of the main circuit equipment of objects of power supply systems: Proc. Benefit / V.C. Grunin, V.F. Nebuskin, V.K. Fedorov, A.D. Ernst; Under the total. Ed. V.C. Grunina. Ed. 2 - ie, Corr. and ext. Omsk: Publishing - in OmGTU. - 2005. P. 144.

    2. Meter reading - service induction meters and metering in electrical circuits / [Electronic resource] - Access mode - URL: http: // forca. ru / knigi / uchet / obsluzhivanie -indukcionnyh-schetchikov-i-cepei-ucheta-v-elektroustanovkah_9.html (date of the application: 26.09.2016).

    3. Electrical devices and electrical systems: Reference: 2 / V.L. Vyazigin, V.N. Goryunov, V.K. Grunin (Sec Ed.) And others Omsk Univ. OmGTU. - 2004.

    4. Guide to the design of electrical networks / D.L. Faibisovich. - M .: - in NTs ENAS. - 2005.


    Ключові слова: ДОБОВИЙ ГРАФІК НАВАНТАЖЕНЬ /DAILY SCHEDULE LOADS /КАБЕЛЬНА ЛІНІЯ /CABLE LINE /ВТРАТИ ЕЛЕКТРОЕНЕРГІЇ /LOSS OF ELECTRICITY /PAYBACK TIME /ЧАС ОКУПНОСТІ

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