Aceh Regency is one of the central agriculture in Aceh province. Production of agriculture consists of plantation and horticulture. The yield of plantation has potential in fulfilling the need to be exported to the foreign country. One of superior production of plantation is Arabica coffee, if we see the data from central Bureaau of statistics; it claims that the production of arabica coffee / Ha is 31,373 Ton / Ha / year. High production of coffee arabica will give effect in increasing income and prosperity of coffee farmer in Aceh Tengah Regency. The objectives of the study is to analyze the influence of purchasing unhulled coffee on wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. Analysis method used is analysis simple regression linier. Analysis simple regression linier is a statistical technique founded by using mathematic method is aimed to see the influence between dependent variable Y variable independent. (Sudjana, 1992) which is there is some independent variable connected to the dependent variable. If independent variable in this study is X1. Thus dependent variable is (Y). Analysis simple regression linier is one of indirect approach used to measure influence of purchasing unhulled coffee on wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. The result of analysis simple regression linier got in this study is using formulation? = 23.452 + 119.518 X1. It means each increasing of amount of purchasing unhulled for 119.518 thus it will rise wage of wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency for Rp. 119.518 / person.

## Анотація наукової статті з електротехніки, електронної техніки, інформаційних технологій, автор наукової роботи - Fitri Ilma, Ridhana Fita, Hikmah

Область наук:

Журнал: Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences

## Текст наукової роботи на тему «ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF PURCHASING UNHULLED COFFEE ON WAGE RECEIVED BY WOMEN EMPLOYEE OF SORTER COFFEE AT COOPERATION OF ARINAGATA SUBDISTRICT KEBAYAKAN, ACEH TENGAH REGENCY, INDONESIA»

?DOI 10.18551 / rjoas.2019-09.18

ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF PURCHASING UNHULLED COFFEE ON WAGE RECEIVED BY WOMEN EMPLOYEE OF SORTER COFFEE AT COOPERATION OF ARINAGATA SUBDISTRICT KEBAYAKAN, ACEH TENGAH REGENCY, INDONESIA

Fitri Ilma *, Ridhana Fita, Hikmah

Study Program of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gajah Putih, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT

Aceh Regency is one of the central agriculture in Aceh province. Production of agriculture consists of plantation and horticulture. The yield of plantation has potential in fulfilling the need to be exported to the foreign country. One of superior production of plantation is Arabica coffee, if we see the data from central Bureaau of statistics; it claims that the production of arabica coffee / Ha is 31,373 Ton / Ha / year. High production of coffee arabica will give effect in increasing income and prosperity of coffee farmer in Aceh Tengah Regency. The objectives of the study is to analyze the influence of purchasing unhulled coffee on wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. Analysis method used is analysis simple regression linier. Analysis simple regression linier is a statistical technique founded by using mathematic method is aimed to see the influence between dependent variable Y variable independent. (Sudjana, 1992) which is there is some independent variable connected to the dependent variable. If independent variable in this study is X1. Thus dependent variable is (Y). Analysis simple regression linier is one of indirect approach used to measure influence of purchasing unhulled coffee on wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. The result of analysis simple regression linier got in this study is using formulation Y = 23.452 + 119.518 X1. It means each increasing of amount of purchasing unhulled for 119.518 thus it will rise wage of wage received by women employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency for Rp. 119.518 / person.

KEY WORDS

Purchasing, unhulled coffee, women, employee, cooperation.

Coffee is one of the plants that has been cultivated and has high economic value. Nevertheless, it has been known by the world after this plant is expended out of its origin area that is in south of Yaman through the coffee merchantmen. Coffee becomes one of the horticultural commodities that have high economic value among other horticultural plants and play role as the foreign exchange (Najiyati. S, 2004)

Cooperation Multitrade Arinagata is one of cooperation which takes process seed of coffee that is separated from the stalks becomes green been coffee. The seed that is separated from the stalk is obtained from the farmer in Aceh Tengah and Bener Meriah Regency.

The role of cooperation has beneficial effect for farmer. Cooperation Multitrade Arinagata buys coffee with the appropriate purchasing power for the farmer. Moreover, the existence of the cooperation becomes one of the stepping-stone to the foreign market because the customer from Europe and united state ask the clarity of the source of coffee that they buy.

Sorting is the process to separate, classify the raw things or the coffee that is not perfect or malformed. The process of sorting is done by the women at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah. The objective of sorting is to obtain the high quality green been coffee that is ready to be exported to the foreign country.

Table 1 - Total purchasing of the coffee at 2018 at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata,

Aceh Tengah Regency

No Month Total of Purchasing coffee

1 January 41,837

2 March 125,028

3 April 132,548

4 Mei 179,171

5 Jun 41,836

6 September 127,974

7 December 177,083

Total 825,477

Source: Secondary Data Processing.

From the table above, it can be seen that the purchasing coffee from farmer around Aceh Tengah and Bener Meriah vary each month, it give direct effect to the receiving wages of the women who sort the coffee at cooperation of multitrade Arinagata Aceh Tengah Regency.

To make study not widen to far, the researcher make the limitation of the study. The focus of the study discuss in this occasion: influence of purchasing coffee to income of sorting women wages at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah Regency.

Based on the problem of the study thus the objective of the study is to analyze the influence of the purchasing coffee to the sorting women wages at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah.

The significance of the study is to give the benefit for:

• Aceh Tengah government. The result of the study can give information to the government Aceh Tengah to make policy about the agriculture so that it can establish the effectiveness in taking the policy;

• Academician. For the references to add the knowledge and give the information about the influence of the purchasing coffee to the sorting women wages at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah;

• Reader. Result of the study can enlarge the horizon and widen the knowledge to make the study about the influence of the purchasing coffee to the sorting women wages at Cooperation of Multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah;

• Researcher. Result of the study becomes the reference for the next researcher.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Ministry of Manpower has decided the provincial minimum wage 2018 at 8,71%. Provincial government has announced provincial minimum wage for each Regency. Director of social security and workplace, ministry of Manpower, Wahyu Widodo, said almost all provinces have reported its provincial minimum wage 2018. Their side also hopes both entrepreneur and employee can accept the situation. There are four province that the percentage of the increasing of provincial minimum wage is above 8.71%, that is west papua 10,14%, Nusa Tenggara Barat 11,88%, Nusa Tenggara Timur 8,85% and Maluku 15,44%. The percentage of increasing of provincial minimum wage in these four provinces is higher because they have not achieved the number of live in prosperity (Anonymus 2017).

Income is the way to receive either money or thing, either other side or our own enterprise by the way and value with amount of money or service that is being valid at current time (2005: 245).

Based on Indonesian dictionary, wages is payment that is given as recompense of service or charge that have been done by other people as the reaction of their task (Pius, 1998.: 602).

For conventional economic, there is efficiency of wages theory. This theory said that the more wage is paid, the more productive the employee will be. A theory efficiency of wage applied in the poor country said that wage can influence the nutrition (Mankew, 2006: 165).

The employee that is paid with appropriate wage has more nutrients, and the employee that is healthier is more productive. Theory efficiency of wage said that employee's productivity goes hand in hand with the level of wage received (Karl E, tt: 226).

Wage is payment for the laborer that does not have permanent job such as laborer in agricultural, carpenter, bricklayer and daily laborer (Sukirno, 2005: Додати 350).

Wage is income as retain from employment to employee for a task or service that has been or will be done, it has purpose as guarantee of proper live for human being and enterprise, state value in form of money that is decided based on the task done or labor contract (Mulia Nasution, SE, 1994).

According to Soekartawi 2003 page 9, wage of man power is decided from various aspects such as market mechanism or the way of market system that is not perfect make the wage of man power become inconsistence in any time. Man employee has higher wage than woman employee.

Man power factor is a power means either spiritual or physical power which is shown to the labor production.Suud.MH.2007. (72)

Permanent employee is employee who is received or obtained income in certain amount regularly, it is included the councilor commissioner and the councilor supervisor that regularly involved to manage the enterprise activity, and the employee who work contractually for specific amount of time as long as the employee work based on standard operational procedure of the company (Dumairy, 1997).

Law no. 13 year 2003 about man power article 11: each employee has right to achieve and / or to increase and / or to develop task competency based on aptitude, interest and their ability through trainee. Article 12 verses (3) each employee has same opportunity to join trainee according to their task field.

Having the coffee's peel off, sorting is done to separate wanted been with the remnant peel of coffee, corneous peel, the coffee been which is broken and other waste material. Coffee been will be stable if the water level 12%.

If the water level does not achieve 12%, other drainage will be necessary. It can be through sun bathing or by drainage machine. If the water level is higher than 12%, coffee been will be easy contradicted by fungus. It is below, coffee been will absorb water from the air easily and it can alter the aroma and taste of the coffee. After the water level achieves 12%, it can be packed and hidden.

Sorting is done to separate between coffee been and other waste material such as a piece of leaf, wood, and coffee leaf. Small coffee been must be sorted physically based on size and malformed been. Sorting of sie is done through mechanic sieve or manual (Manurung, 55: 2012).

Dry sorting is aimed to separate the coffee been according to the quality wanted. Sorting is done through two ways those are: by means catador which operates based on specific weight and sieve which operates based on different size and manual by human power. Human power is needed to determine the malformed coffee (Nurdijati, Gardjito, 2011).

Theoretical framework. Amount of purchasing unhulled coffee is low and it effect the income of women sorter of coffee is low at cooperation multitrade Arinagata, Aceh Tengah Regency. Therefore, it is fair if amelioration is applied in upgrading the level purchasing power of unhulled coffee so that it can boost women sorter of coffee to increase the amount of sorted coffee each day, thus it can increase their wage or income higher than before. The objective aimed and the obstacle faced is determinant factor for women sorter of coffee to increase the wage obtained.

Based on the review of literature discussed and the result of the previous study, thus the theoretical framework is take in a row, it shows that a series of correlation between the purchasing power of unhulled coffee and the the wage received by the women sorter of coffee at cooperation of multitrade Arinagata Aceh Tengah Regency. Result of analyze conducted can give beneficial in making the developed policies hopefully.

METHODS OF RESEARCH

This study is conducted at coorperation of multitrade Arinagata at Jln. Takengon-Bireun, Batas Kota, Desa Paya Tumpi, sub district Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. The data needed in this study is included primary data and secondary data. Primary data:

• Observation is the way in data collection through doing observing and taking a note systematically on the tendency or phenomenon exist in object of the study (Wirartha, 2006);

• Interview is data collection technique through question and answer done systematically according to objectives of the study (Sugoyono: 2008).

Secondary data is obtained from agency related with the problem of the study. According to Malhotra (1993), analysis double regressing linier is a statistic technique developed by using mathematic method which is aimed to see the composite of two or more variable.

Y = a0 + a1X1

Where: Y = income / wage; X1 = amount of purchasing unhulled coffee; ao = Constanta; a1 = Parameter studied; e = Error.

To measure the influence independent variable X1 simultaneously on dependent variable (Y) is applied F-test with formulate as follows (Sudjana, 1992):

F = (R2 / k) / ((1 - R2) (n - k - 1))

Where: R2 = coefficient determination; k = amount of independent variable; n = amount of sample with decision rule: if F test < F table (a = 0,05), Ho accepted and Ha rejected; if F test > F table (a = 0,05), Ha accepted and Ho rejected.

Furthermore to test tight between independent variable (X1) with dependent variable (Y) it is used coefficient determination (R2) with the formulation as follows (Sudjana, 1992):

R2 = JK (reg) /? Yi2

Where: R2 = coefficient determination; JK (reg) = sum of square for regressing; total square.

To test the influence independent variable (X1, X2, X3, X4 ... X9) individually / is needed with the formulation as follows (Sudjana, 1992):

t test = ai / Sai

Where: ai = coefficient regression variable Xi (i = 1,2,3, ..., 9); Sai = Standard error variable Xi (i = 1,2,3,., 9) with decision rule: If t-test < t table (a = 0,05), thus Ho accepted and Ha rejected; If t-test > t table (a = 0,05), thus Ha accepted and Ho rejected.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This study is conducted at cooperation of multitrade ARINAGATA Paya Tumpi subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. Paya Tumpi is a village around Takengon city, it is placed ± 1KM from the central city in length. If we see from the economic side, this location is very suitable to place the central of office.

Yi = sum of partial t-test

Cooperation of multitrade ARINAGATA is placed at Paya Tumpi, Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. Placed at Jln. Takengon - Bener Meriah. The boundaries as follows: East with Simpang Empat village; West Barat with Paya Tumpi Baru village; North with Pinangan village; South with Mongal.

Moreover the coffee farmer who become member spread in 5 (five) subdistricts those are: subdistrict Celala which is consist of 5 villages, subdistrict Lut tawar which is consist of 1 village, subdistrict Bintang consists of 30 villages, subdistrict Silih Nara consists of 2 villages and subdistrict Kebayakan consists of 1 village.

Aceh Tengah is one of the best producers of arabica coffee which gets international world acceptance. Nevertheless, if we see from the side of income, farmer wage is below the average. It can be seen from many society of Takengon is included as poor and middle society. One of the caused is the market system, handling after ingathering of coffee. These factors are still below expectation. On the other hand, coffee cultivation applied is still not appropriate. Regarding this fact, in 2006, the number 30 people discuss to seek new concept to make the product of coffee at Takengon become better than before thus they initiate to found cooperation which is focus in the field of coffee. Thus they created unit of autonomy coffee trade which look for 300 coffee farmer as member of cooperation.

Cooperation of multitrade Arinagata is cooperation that runs the factory in the field of coffee trade, in this field there are many aspect involved in the cooperation and the export. The people in the Arinagata are the coffee farmer. To runs cooperation Arinagata easier to operate, they founded office ar Jln. Takengon Bireun, batas kota, Paya Tumpi subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency.

Table 2 - Characteristics of age of respondent, employee of being sunbath at cooperation Arinagata

No Age Number of sample Percentage

1 Age 18 - 35 year 10 40

2 Age > 36 year 15 60

Total 25 100%

Source: Primary Data Processed, 2019.

Based on table above, it can be seen that 10 people or (40%) member of sample with the level of age 18 - 35 years old, and 15 people or (60%) member of sample with the level of age > 36 years old.

Characteristics based on level of education. Character of respondent in this study is classified based on the education that employee of sorter ever do, at level of formal education, such as elementary, junior high school, senior high school. This fact can be seen at table below:

Table 4 - Character based on level of education of respondent, employee of being sunbath

at cooperation Arinagata

No Level of education Number of sample Percentage

1 Elementary - -

2 Junior high school 13 52

3 Senior high school 12 48

Total 25 100%

Source: Primary Data Processed, 2019.

Based on the table above, it can be seen that the employee at cooperation Arinagata at level of elementary is none at all. Nevertheless, at level of junior high school, there are 13 people with percentage 52%, and at level of senior high school there are 12 people or 48%.

Table 5 - Character based on respondents 'total load, employee of being sunbath

No_Group of total load_Total sample_Percentage_

1 0-3 20 80

2 >4 5 20

_Total_25_100% _

Source: Primary Data Processed, 2019.

Based on table above, it can be seen that 20 people of member of sample have total load 0-3 people and 5 people of the employee to sort coffee have >4 people to be taken as responsibility. Total load is people who are still relatives and their live is taken responsibility by the employee of sorter coffee.

Table 6 - Character based on respondents 'experience, employee of sorter at corporation Arinagata

No Experience (Year) Total sample Percentage

1 0 - 4 13 40

2 > 5 12 60 _Total_25_100% _

Source: Primary Data Processed, 2019.

Based on table above, it can be seen that experience of employee of sorter at cooperation of Arinagata is 0-4 year for 13 people or (40%). Job experience in sorting for >5 year is experienced by 12 people or (60%).

Sorting process and receiving wage of employee of sorter at cooperation of Arinagata. Cooperation of Arinagata is one of company running at agribusiness of coffee. It helps unemployment to earn regular income. This is because Arinagata does some processes, one of them is sunbathing and sorting coffee, the reason why coffee been should be sunbathed is, one of them, to increase the productivity of coffee been, on the other hand with appropriate dryness of coffee been, it become stock if price of coffee decrease drastically in anytime, with certain driness coffee will not be broken and be long-lasting until the price become normal

Sorting process is done after some steps. It begins with purchase the unhulled coffee been from farmer, huller, sunbath, sutton and finally sorting done by employee of sorter, each activity has its own role and function. Manual sorting process is done by women household which is they are women employee. Sorting is done to separate been with high quality with rotten been, and the result of sorting can resort again to separate the level of quality of coffee or called as (grade).

The wage or salary system of employee of sorter at cooperation of Arinagata is done at the end of the month which is the payment is done through sum up the result of sorting of coffee got with wage / kg is Rp. 500. The amount of wage obtained per kg is decided by cooperation of Arinagata.

Wage of employee of being sunbath. Wage of employee of sorter is done through sum up the result of sorting got in one month with total pe kg which is Rp. 600 / kg. Total wage decided for sorting process is Rp.600 / Kg. The table below can show total purchasing unhulled coffee and the result of sorting got.

Table 7 - Total sorting coffee at cooperation Arinagata, 2019

No Month Total sorting wage Sum of wage (Rp) Wage / person / month

1 April 152,467 600 91,480,200 3,659,208

Total 152,467 - 91,480,200 3,659,208

Source: Data Processed, 2019.

Based on the table above, it can be seen that total purchasing coffee been at April in 2019, total sorting green coffee is 152.467 Kg with wage 600 / Kg with total wage Rp 91.480.200- / month. And average income / person / month is Rp 3.654.208 (for 25 employee of sorter).

To know the influence between total purchasing unhulled coffee and wage received by the employee of sorter at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah

Regency. In this occasion, researcher use simple regression linier. And the result of analysis simple regression linier as the following:

Table 8 - Simple Regression Analysis

Descriptive Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation N

wage Unhulled Coffee 1.36E6 1.13E4 208749.498 1746.590 27 27

Correlations

Wage Unhulled coffee

Pearson Correlation Wage 1.000 1.000

Unhulled coffee 1.000 1.000

Sig. (1-tailed) Wage Unhulled coffee .000 .000

N Wage 27 27

Unhulled coffee 27 27

Score of correlation X1 (purchasing the unhulled coffee) with Y (wage received) is 1.000 with value of p value correlation (sig) 000. Thus it can be concluded there is tight correlation and significant (p value < 0.05) between purchasing unhulled coffee and wage received.

Table 9 - Analysis by using simple regression linier, 2019

Model Summaryb

R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics Durbin-Watson

R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change

1.000a 1.000 1.000 15.275 1.000 4.856E9 1 25 .000 2.303

a. Predictors: (Constant), unhulled coffee;

b. Dependent Variable: wage.

Coefficient correlation is 1, where if coefficient correlation is getting closer 1, thus it can be concluded that dependent variable (purchasing unhulled coffee) has tight influence with wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency.

Coefficient determination R2 is 1.000 or 100% that is contribution given by factor of total purchasing unhulled coffee toward wage of employee of sorter coffee at coorperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency.

From the data analysis simple regression linier, it can be seen in the table of f-test and t-test below:

Table 10 - Tests Results

ANOVAb

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Regression 1.133E12 1 1.133E12 4.856E9 .000a

1 Residual 5833.063 25 233.323

Total 1.133E12 26

a. Predictors: (Constant), unhulled coffee;

b. Dependent Variable: wage.

It can be seen from difference analysis, table anova (appendix) is got the value of Ftest is 4.856 and Ftable with value a = 5% or 0.05 (1:27) is 4.21, because Ftest > Ftable or we can see the value of its probability which is smaller than level of belief that is (0.000 < 0.05). it means if Ftest > Ftable thus Ho rejected and Ha, accepted, it means variable total purchasing unhulled coffee gives influence on wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. (Give significant influence on the wage received). Equation simple regression linier as the following:

Proposed is accepted, it means influence between total purchasing unhulled coffee and wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. Therefore based on coefficient simple regression linier is obtained result of data processing by using equation simple regression linier as follows:

Table 11 - Result of data processing by using equation simple regression linier

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95% Confidence Interval for B Correlations Collinearity Statistics

B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound Zero-order Partial Part Tolerance VIF

(Constant) 23.452 19.66 1.192 0.24 -17.057 63.96

Unhulled coffee 119.518 0.002 1 6.97 0 119.515 119.522 1 1 1 1 1

Y = 23.452 + 119.518 X1

Where: Y - wage received; X1: purchasing unhulled coffee.

To see level of significant in this case, thus it is measured ttest, where value of ttest is 6.968, where value of standard error is a = 5% or 0.05, therefore it is got value of ttable is 2.064. This is shown that ttest > ttable, thus rule of decision we can conclude is Ho rejected and dan Ha, accepted, it means total variable purchasing unhulled coffee give influence on the wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency (influence significantly on the wage received)

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Base on the result of the study and discussion above, thus it can be concluded that:

• There is influence between purchasing unhulled Arabica coffee on the wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency;

• Result of calculation based on Ftest (test as all at once) it can be seen that Ftest > Ftable, thus role of decision is factor total purchasing unhulled coffee give influnce significantly on the level of wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency. With the rule of decision Ho rejected and Ha. accepted;

• Based on the test individually ttest, it is found that ttest > ttable. Thus obviously, total purchasing unhulled coffee give influence significantly on the level of wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency.

Suggestions given by writer based on the the conclusion above are: in purchasing unhulled Arabica coffee give influence significantly on the level of wage received by employee of sorter coffee at cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency:

• For director of cooperation of Arinagata Subdistrict Kebayakan, Aceh Tengah Regency, it is hoped to maintain the activity, that is purchasing unhulled coffee been continuously and consistence;

• For the employee of sorter coffee to be more intensive in doing this activity to keep the quantities and qualities product of sorting.

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*Purchasing / unhulled coffee / women / employee / cooperation*

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