In this work, we describe an approach to the design of distributed systems that integrate object-oriented methods (OOM) and the поп object-oriented В formal method. Our goal is to retain some OOM advantages and produce a flexible and reliable specification. Through the use of our example, we show how this is achieved. We prove formally that our design meets its informal specification with the help of B-Toolkit Release 3.4.2. We illustrate the approach by the В specification of A Computerized Visitor Information System (ACVIS). Object Modeling Technique diagrams allows us to make ACVIS more readable and open for changes.

Анотація наукової статті з комп'ютерних та інформаційних наук, автор наукової роботи - Malioukov A.


Область наук:

  • Комп'ютер та інформатика

  • Рік видавництва: тисяча дев'ятсот дев'яносто дев'ять


    Журнал: Известия Південного федерального університету. Технічні науки


    Наукова стаття на тему 'An object-based solution of a Computerized visitor information system'

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «An object-based solution of a Computerized visitor information system»

    ?УДК 658.512

    A. Malioukov AN OBJECT-BASED SOLUTION OF A COMPUTERIZED VISITOR INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Abstract

    In this work, we describe an approach to the design of distributed systems that integrate object-oriented methods (OOM) and the non object-oriented В formal method. Our goal is to retain some OOM advantages and produce a flexible and reliable specification. Through the use of our example, we show how this is achieved. We prove formally that our design meets its informal specification with the help of По-Toolkit Release 3.4.2. We illustrate the approach by the В specification of A Computerized Visitor Information System (ACVIS). Object Modeling Technique diagrams allows us to make ACVIS more readable and open for changes.

    1 Introduction

    The work presents the В specification and implementation of ACVIS. В is a method for specifying, designing, and coding software systems [1]. ACVIS is A Computerized Visitor Information System. This system assists in managing arrangements for visitors and meetings at a large site. Our goal is to produce a reusable specification of this system. For this purpose, we use Object-Oriented Methods (OOM). We prove formally that our design meets its specification with the help of B-Toolkit Release 3.4.2 (Copyright По-Core (UK) Ltd. 1985-96) [2]. Although В is non object-oriented in nature, we still hope to retain some OOM advantages. Through the simulation of inheritance and encapsulation we integrate OOM with the not object-oriented formal method В. A В specification is generally constructed from a structure of included abstract machines. Abstract machine is a concept that is very close to certain well-known notions in programming, such as modules, classes or abstract data types [I]. For design and detailed description of ACVIS we use the Object Model Notation of Object Modeling Technique (OMT). These diagrams allow us to make ACVIS more readable and open for changes. The following steps are taken for the formal specification, design and implementation of ACVIS software:

    • At an early stage in the analysis it becomes clear that ACVIS consists of several highly independent subsystems. This leads us first to define the manager of our system and then to specify the help machines (the subsystems in isolations).

    • We refine the help machines into four special ones. We need to prepare ACVIS for the implementation of a previously used dot notation.

    • We implement all specifications that we are using im modeling of the system.

    The resulting model is robust, flexible and reliable. There are fewer proof obligations. The given solution can be easily changed to allow new tasks.

    2 Objcct-oricnted and Object-Based Development

    Superficially the term "object-oriented" (00) means that we organize software as a collection of discrete objects that incorporate both data structure and behavior [7]. 00 development has the following general properties: encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism and dynamic binding.

    • ENCAPSULATION. The property of a software module, such that changes to the implementation of the module that do not alter its abstraction do not affect the use of that module by any other module [19].

    • INHERITANCE. The convention by which the definition of a subclass is considered to automatically include all the attributes defined in any of its superclass and to also include any operations defined in any of its superclasses that are not specially redefined [19].

    • DYNAMIC BINDING and POLYMORPHISM. Program entities should be permitted to refer to object of more than one class, and operations should be permitted to have different realizations in different classes [20].

    At initial glance, objects and В machines have many similarities, such as inheritance or encapsulation. The По-Method and its supporting tools enforce the idea of ​​encapsulation completely [5]. However, as noted in [22] objects are structured in order to model the real world, where machines are structured in order to encapsulate proof obligations. We do not use polymorphism and dy namic binding because they are not supported by По-Toolkit. Thus, in practice, В-Toolkit can not even give a possibility to exploit any global variables. Nevertheless, it makes sense, because when the tool tries to prove the correctness of a machine nobody can be sure that-simultaneously another machine, using the aforementioned variables has not changed their values. This causes confusion as to the correct variables to use. Finally we can state that the В-Toolkit is not object-oriented but object-based, that is why we name our system as Object-Based AC VIS (OBACVIS).

    3 Overview of the Object Modeling Technique

    The Object Modeling Technique (OMT) is a methodology for software development, based on a graphical notation for representing object-oriented concept. 00 notation is used to describe classes and relationships throughout their life-circle. The methodology uses three kinds of models to describe a system: object, dynamic and functional models. The object model contains object diagrams and captures the static structure of the objects in a system and their relations. The dynamic model contains state diagrams and describes the aspects of the system that change over time. The functional model contains data flow diagrams and specifies the data value transforma tions. The design of each model consist of optimizing, refining, and extending until the models are detailed enough for implementation phase. The OMT method produces systems that are more stable with respect to changes in requirements than traditional functional-oriented approaches.

    The OMT notation is the graphical notation that are used to build the object model, dynamic model, and functional model. A class in the OMT notation is represented by a box with three regions, which contain, from top to bottom: class name, list of attributes, and list of operations. An association describes a group of links with common structure and common semantics. The OMT notation for an association is a line between classes. Associations may be binary, ternary, or higher order.

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) [9] uses similar semantics and notation as OMT, Booch [10], Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) [11] and the statecharts [12, 13] of David Harel, with minor modifications. It is therefore possible to use this emerging standard modeling language for the description of software systems, instead of OMT notation.

    4 Problem Description

    We illustrate our approach by the В specification of A Computerized Visitor Information System (ACVIS). AC VIS based on A Computer Aided Visitor Information And Retrieval system

    (CAVIAR). A formal specification of CAVIAR was given in тисячі дев'ятсот вісімдесят один by J-R. Abrial and was sub-

    sequently specified in Z by B. Flinn and I.H. SOrensen [6]. In 1992 року, R. Docherty and A. Dillcr presented CAVIAR in AMN [17].

    The following information is initially given: Visitors come to the site to attend meetings. A visitor may require a hotel reservation. Each meeting is required to take place in a conference room. A meeting may require the use of a dining room for lunch. Booking a dining room requires lunch information, including the number of places needed.

    Some important properties:

    1. At any time a conference room may be associated with only one meeting.

    2. At any time a meeting may be associated with more than one conference room.

    3. At any time a meeting may be associated with only one dining room.

    4. At any time participants from several meetings can occupy the same dining room. Each dining room has a maximum capacity and unnumbered seats.

    5. At any time a visitor may be associated with only one meeting.

    6. At any time a meeting may involve several visitors.

    7. At any time a hotel room may be associated with only one visitor.

    Remark: We omit the notion of time but it can be added, if needed.

    5 From the Problem Description to the Specification

    Our goal is to create a object-based specification that meets the ACVIS requirements. As far as OBACVIS is an object-based solution let us start from the object model. For constructing such a model we should do the following steps according to the OMT method [7]:

    • Identify classes;

    • Identify associations between classes;

    • Identify attributes of classes;

    • Organize and simplify classes using inheritance.

    1. The identification of classes consists of:

    • Extraction of all nouns from the problem statement. Presume they are the initial classes. In the OBACVIS example it is: Visitors, Meetings, Hotel reservation, Conference rooms, Participants, Dining rooms, Lunch, Seats, Hotel rooms, Maximal capacity of a dining room, Number of places in a dining room.

    • Additional classes that do not appear directly in the statement, but can be identified from our knowledge of the problem domain. For example, People.

    • Eliminating unnecessary and incorrect classes according to the following criteria:

    Attributes. Names that primarily describe individual objects should be restated as attributes. For example. Maximal capacity of a dining room is a dining room's property.

    Operations. For example. Hotel reservation is a sequence of actions and not an object

    class.

    - Irrelevant. Initial class Lunch has nothing in common with our visitor information system.

    CONFERENCE

    ROOMS

    HOTEL

    ROOMS

    DINING

    ROOMS

    Figure 1: Elimination Unnecessary and Incorrect Classes Vague. For example, Seats is vague. In the OBACVIS system, this is a part of Dining

    rooms.

    - Redundant. If two or more classes express the same information the most descrip tive name should be kept. For instance, Participants and Visitors are redundant.

    Removing all spurious classes, we are left with the following classes (Fig. I):

    - PEOPLE

    - MEETINGS

    - CONFERENCE-ROOMS

    - DINING-ROOMS

    - HOTEL_ROOMS

    2. Now we should identify the associations between classes. Any dependency between two or more classes is an association. It can be easily done according to the task description. For example, if one considers the phrase from the problem description "At any time a conference room may be associated with only one meeting", it is obvious that between classes MEETINGS and CONFERENCE-ROOMS should be 'many-to-one' relation. By using such a simple method we find four associations between defined classes. They are designated as meeting.visits, hotel-rooms-booking, dining-rooms-booking, conference-rooms-booking.

    3.Now we have the classes and associations between them. We can draw an initial class diagram by using Object Model Notation of OMT. Following the notation, all classes are described by means of rectangles and the associations among classes are defined as named arcs. Fig. 2 shows OBACVIS initial class diagram. The class diagram is an object diagram that describes a class as a schema, pattern, or template for many possible instances of data [7]. We should not forget the difference between classes and objects. Object is a concept, the abstraction, or thing with crisp boundaries and meanings for the problem at hand. Class is a description of a group of objects with similar properties, common behavior, common relationships, and common semantics [7]. In such case, HOTEL-ROOMS is a class but HOTEL-ROOM is an object.

    Attributes are properties of individual objects, such as name, weight, velocity, or color. In the OBACVIS we define the following attributes: register-book-for-visitors, register-book-for-meeti'i and Dining-Room-Capacity

    PEOPLE MEETINGS dl * iAt-lV04Uj>0 (Ai »t DINING JIOOMS

    w Ш

    .

    1ог ^ гтгт'г_пнли ^ voting

    «Racily i км лапу (ten><v mure)

    Figure 2: OBACVIS initial class diagram

    Actually register '-. Book -)' or'-visitors and register-book-for-meetings are sets of names. The meaning of these two attributes can be explained in the following manner: having name of any visitor (meeting) one can check if this item is in the set of visitors (meetings) or not. One can use this information to avoid duplication of the registration. Attribute Dining-Room-Capacity is a maximal number of seats at each dining room. For the simplification of our problem we assume that all the dining rooms have an equal number of seats.

    4. The next step is to organize classes by using inheritance. CONFERENCE-ROOMS, DINING-ROOMS and HOTEL_ROOMS have similar structure, except DINING_ROOI which has an attribute Dining-Room-Capacity. We can open a new superclass HM (help machine). Each

    subclass (CONFERENCE_ROOMS, DINING-ROOMS and HO-TEL-ROOMS) inherits all properties from the superclass HM.

    Fig. 3 is a class diagram of OBACVIS with attributes and inheritance.

    6 Specification in B

    In the B-Method, specifications, refinements and implementations are presented as Abstract Machines. B is one of the few "formal methods" which has robust, commercially available tool support for the entire development life cycle from specification through to code generation [4]. Further on, we are going to show the B-code and explain the way of system modeling by using the object model of OBACVIS.

    We present each class from previously defined object model as a separate abstract machine. Machine OBACVIS is the manager of the whole system. The attributes of the object model we define as two variables [register-book -] 'or-visitors and register-hook-j'or-meetings) and one input parameter (Dining-Room-Capacity).

    INVARIANT should contain all information about the associations between classes, otherwise one can not be sure that a machine meets the requirements of the informal specification.

    Operations can be generated according to the different scenarios (a scenario is a sequence of operations that occurs during one particular execution of a system, the scope of scenario can

    Figure 3: OBACVIS class diagram with attributes and inheritance

    • Book-Dining-Room books a free dining room for an arranged meeting. A dining room can not be booked twice.

    • CanceLDining-Room makes free a booked dining room.

    • CanceLMeeting-Arrangement quits a meeting with associated conference, dining rooms and all registered visitors.

    • Create- Visitor registers a new visitor. A visitor can not be registered twice.

    • Destroy-Visitor removes the name of a registered visitor from the registration list.

    • Book-HoteLRoom books a hotel room for a registered visitor. A person can not book one hotel room twice. Only one person can book one hotel room.

    • CanceLHoteLRoom checks out a visitor.

    OBACVIS manages each operation of the above-defined classes. Such managing works in the following way: OBACVIS declares the types of input parameters and after that calls the operations from the help machines. They do some actions: an initialization of variables, definition of sets and

    INVARIANT, checking preconditions of operations (the INVARIANT should hold for all preconditions), and finally changing sets according to the operation.

    There are still some preconditions at the operations of OBACVIS. Mainly these preconditions declare the types of input parameters. That is why B-Toolkit generates only twenty-four proof obligations for the OBACVIS instead of thirty-seven for the non object-based solution AC VIS. Fifteen proof obligations were proved by the Automatic Prover (AutoProof) of B-Toolkit. Others were proved easily.

    MACHINE OBACVIS (Dining-Room-Copacity) INCLUDES HR.HMJ1 CR HM.3.MV HM-2, DR HM-S

    VARIABLES

    register-book-for-visitors register J) ookJor-meetings

    INVARIANT

    register'-book) 'or'-visitors is a subset of set PEOPLE. In other words, register'-book-for'-visitors is the list of registered visitors.

    register-book-for-visitors C PEOPLE JI

    register-book-for-meetings is a subset of set MEETINGS. In other words, register-book-for-meetings is the list of registered meetings.

    register-book-for-meetings C MEETINGS JI

    The sum of all registered visitors from all registered meetings that associated with each dining

    room should be less or equal Dining-Room-Capacity.

    V d-r (d-r? DINING-ROOMS => card (MV event ^ [DR event [fd-r)]]) < Dining-Room-Capacity)

    INITIALISATION

    mgister-book-j'or-visitors '• = QII register-book-for-meetings •• = 0

    OPERATIONS

    Create-Meeting

    Create-Meeting (meeting) -

    PRE meeting (= MEETINGS J1

    meeting A register-book-for-meetings THEN

    register-book-for-meetings: = register-book-for-meetings U {meeting}

    END;

    Cancel_Meeting

    Cancel-Meeting (meeting)

    PRE meeting G register-book-for-meetings JI meeting A ran (AfV. EvenA) Jl meeting A ran ((7J1. EvenA) Jl

    meeting j. dom (flJI. event) THEN

    register-book-for-meetings: = register-book-for-meetings {meeting}

    END;

    Add_Visitor_To .Meeting

    Add- Visitor-To-Meeting (visitor, meeting) = PRE meeting? register-book-for-meetings / 1 visitor? register-book-for-visitors Jl visitor j. dom (A / V event) Jl

    Before adding a name of new visitor to the list of participants of the current meeting we want to be sure that there is as minimum one vacant place in the dining room.

    card (MV event -1 [DR event ~ 1 [DR event [{meeting}]]])<

    Dining-Room-Capacity THEN

    MV Adding (visitor, meeting) END;

    Remove -Visit or -FromJVIeeting

    Remove- Visitor-From-Meeting {visitor)

    PRE visitor 6 dom (MV event} THEN

    MV Cancelation (visitor) END;

    Book_Conference_R.oom

    Book-Conference-Room (meeting, room) =

    PRE meeting 6 register-book-for-meetings J1 room 6 CONFERENCE. ROOMS J1

    room $? dom ((7J1. event) THEN

    Ch. Adding (room, meeting) END;

    Cancel-Conference-Room

    CanceLConference-Room (meeting) = PRE meeting? ran (Ch. event) THEN

    C77 Cancelation (meeting) END;

    Book_Dinmg_R, oom

    Book-Dining-Room (meeting, room) =

    PRE meeting G register-book-for-meetings J1 meeting j. dom (

    -OJ1. event)} \ room e DINING-ROOMS JI

    Before booking the dining room, we want lo be sure that there are enough vacant seals for all visitors of the current meeting.

    card (MV event [DR event '' [/ room}] U {meeting} 1) <

    Dining-Room-Capacity THEN DR. Adding (meeting, room) END;

    Cancel-Dining-Room

    CanceLDmmg-Room (meeting) =

    PRE meeting? dom (DR. event) THEN DR. Cancelation (meeting) END;

    Cancel_Meetmg_A.rrangements

    Cancel-Meeting-Arrangementsf meeting) = PRE meeting 6 register-book-for.meetings THEN register-book-J'or-meetings: = register-book-f or-meetings - {meeting} ||

    CR. Cancelation (meeting) ||

    J1JI Cancelation (meeting) ||

    A / V. Cancelation (meeting) END;

    Create_Visitor

    Create- VisitorA person)

    PRE person 6 PEOPLE Jl

    person A register-book-for-visitors THEN

    registerjbook Jor_visitors: = register-book-for-visitors U {person} END;

    Destroy-Vlsitor

    Destroy ^ Visitor {person)

    PRE person? register-book-for-visitors Jl person A dom (JUI. event) Jl

    person A dom (AfY. event) THEN

    register-book-for-visitors: = register, book-for-visitors - {person] END; Book_Hotel_R.oom

    Book-Hotel-Room (person, room) = PRE

    person 6 register-hook-] or-. visitors Jl person $? dom (event) Jl

    room e HOTEL-ROOMS THEN?) J1 Adding (person, room)

    END;

    Cancel-Hotel -Room

    CanceLHoteLRoomf person)

    PRE

    person? dom (HR. event)

    THEN

    HR Cancelation (person)

    END

    DEFINITIONS

    HOTEL-ROOMS = N;

    PEOPLE = N;

    MEETINGS = N;

    CONFERENCE-ROOMS = N;

    DINING-ROOMS = N

    END

    7 Help Machines

    We include four help machines into system manager OBACVIS. Actually, there are only three help machines. We make our specification more elegant by using a dot notation. For instance, MV.HM-2 and DR.HM-2 are two machines with an identical structure but with different data. In other words, machines MV.HM 2 and DR.HM 2 inherit all variables and operations from the machine HM_2. If we add one element into machine MV.HM-2, it will be the same as if we would add one element into the set MV event but not into the set DR.event or event. Each help machine has its own INVARIANT.

    DR.HM-2 corresponds to the class DINING-ROOMS, CR.HM-3 CONFERENCE-_ROOMS, HR.HM l - HOTEL-ROOMS, MV.HM-2 simulates the process of visitor registra tion. It is easy to note that name of each help machine consists of class name abbreviation and number of help machine's type. We keep a few classes inside the system manager, for instance, PEOPLE and MEETINGS. We would like to emphasize the fact that it is not necessary to define each class as a separate abstract machine.

    Each help machine includes operations to create an object (Adding) and to destroy all object instances (Cancelation). It is impossible "to send" from super-machine into sub-machines any notes about the type of operator between variables. Machines HM-1 and HM-2 are absolutely identical but variable event at HM-1 is a set of partial injections (also known as 'one-to-one relation'). Unlike variable event at HM-2 is a set of partial function (also known as 'many-to-one relations'). The difference between HM-3 and HM-1 or HM-2 is that at operation Cancelation of machine HM-2 the result is an anti-restriction (also known as domain subtraction) but at other help machines it is anti-co-restriction (also known as range subtraction).

    MACHINE HM-1

    VARIABLES

    event

    INVARIANT

    event e XX >Л YY INITIALISATION

    event: - {}

    OPERATIONS

    Adding

    Adding (xx yy) = PRE

    xx? XX A

    жа; A dom (event) J1 yyG ГУЛ

    t / r / A ran (eAent)

    THEN event: = event U {xx i- * yy) END;

    Cancelation

    Cancelationf xx) =

    PRE Ta? XX

    THEN event r- {xx j <3 event END DEFINITIONS

    XX N;

    YY N

    END

    The B-Toolkit generates nine proof obligations for the help machines. All of them can be easily proved by the AutoProof.

    8 Conclusions and Future Work

    There is an advantage in object-based solution ACVIS (A Computerized Visitor Information System) problem:

    • Decrease a quantity of proof obligations. There are 24 proof obligations for the main machine OBACVIS and 9 for the sub-machines. However, about 80% of the proof obligations are proved by AutoProof.

    • The new system is quite flexible. If one needs a new kind of room he (she) should include one of the submachines, which meets the requirements of the selected type, call some operations of this submachine from OBACVIS or if it makes sense, add a new submachine. He (she) should not add any new variables or lines into the INVARIANT.

    • An object-based approach produces a clean, well-understood design that is easier to test, maintain, and extend than non-object-based designs because object classes provide a natural unit of modularity.

    • A beneficial side effect for practitioners writing such documents is that their understanding of the system in OMT diagrams is greatly helped by the process of constructing formal specifications. Such diagrams can be useful for presentations.

    We are also interested in rising the abstraction level from the initial B formalism to UML diagrams. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is now the standard notation for software architecture and represents a collection of the best engineering practices that have proven successful in the modeling of large and complex systems. UML includes the OMT mentioned above. Briefly, our idea is that the modeling design could be done according the following algorithm:

    1. design a model of a system on the level of the ULM diagrams;

    2. translate the diagrams into B code;

    3. generate proof obligations with help of the B-Toolkit or Atelier B;

    4. discharge these proof obligations using automatic and interactive provers;

    5. put changes into the diagrams, according to the results of the fourth step;

    6. repeat all previous five steps until the specification meets needed requirements;

    7. implement specification and generate code.

    There are many visual modeling tools supporting OMT or / and UML. With the help of such tools user gets possibility of automatic translation of the UML (OMT) diagrams into many 00 computer languages. However, the existing tools which support the B formalism can generate only C / C ++ code from the B source. Therefore, if one designs his (her) system using diagrams, it would be possible to interpret the B code not only in C / C ++, but in some other computer languages.

    If the В formal method will be 00, and at the same time some tool will support the "round trip" between diagram and В code levels, then one would be able to use the В-Toolkit or Atelier В as the syntactical checker. It will dramatically acceleratc the use of the В formal method.

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    УДК 658.512

    Верба B.A. ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ВЛАСТИВОСТЕЙ ФУНКЦІЇ ЕФЕКТИВНОСТІ

    Властивість спостережливості полягає в тому, що стан системи в минулому може бути визначено за результатами спостережень над вихідними сигналами системи. Наблюдаемость системи характеризує можливість визначити стан збудженому системи по


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