Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate of the acute effects of isoinertial resistance application on sprint, vertical and horizontal jump performance. Material: Volunteered 32 male students were divided into randomized experimental group and control group. Before and after 4-repetition maximal back squat with (for experimental group) or without isoinertial resistance application (for control group), 30 m sprint, vertical squat and countermovement jump tests with both legs, dominant leg, and non-dominant leg, standing broad jump and standing broad countermovement jump tests with both legs were assessed. Wilcoxon t test for preand post-test differences within the group, and Mann Whitney U test for preand post-test differences between the groups were used. Results: There were no significant differences within the group and between the groups for 30m both legs sprint parameters except pre-test mean stride length between the groups (Z = -2.27; p<0.02). Control group had a significant difference between preand post-test dominant leg vertical force (Z = -2.07; p<0.05). There were significant group differences in pre-test non-dominant leg countermovement jump (Z = -2.13; p<0.05), preand post-test non-dominant leg stride length (Z = -1.99 and Z = -2.28; p? 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: As a result of the effect of acute isoinertial resistance application to stride length especially to non-dominant stride length it is concluded that long-term isoinertial resistance training can support sprint performance with tolerating stride length imbalance between dominant leg and non-dominant leg.
Анотація наукової статті за медичними технологіями, автор наукової роботи - Kale M., Ozmusul A., Heper E.
Строковий ЕФЕКТ ЗАСТОСУВАННЯ ІЗОІНЕРЦІАЛЬНОГО ОПОРУ НА СПРіНТ, вертикальні І ГОРИЗОНТАЛЬНІ Стрибки
Мета: Метою даного дослідження було вивчення термінового ефекту застосування ізоінерціального опору на спринт, вертикальні і горизонтальні стрибки. Матеріал: добровольці 32 учні чоловічої статі були розділені на рандомізовану експериментальну групу і контрольну групу. До і після 4-х повторного максимального присідаючи з поверненням (для експериментальної групи) або без застосування ізоінерціонного опору (для контрольної групи), 30-метрового спринту, вертикальних присідань і стрибків з контрольними рухами обома ногами, домінуючою ногою і недоминантной ногою, стоячи, були оцінені стрибки в довжину з місця і стрибки в довжину з обох сторін. Були використані t-критерій Уилкоксона для відмінностей між групами до і після тесту, а також U-критерій Манна Уїтні для відмінностей між групами до і після тесту. Результати: не було ніяких істотних відмінностей всередині групи і між групами для 30 м спринту на обох ногах, крім середньої довжини кроку перед тестом між групами (Z = -2,27; р <0,02). Контрольна група мала значну різницю між вертикальною силою домінуючої ноги до і після тесту (Z = -2,07; p <0,05). Існували суттєві групові відмінності в мимовільному стрибку проти домінуючого положення ноги перед початком тесту (Z = -2,13; р <0,05), в недомінантний положенні до і після випробування довжини кроку недомінантного стану ноги (Z = -1,99 і Z = -2,28; p 0,05 відповідно). Висновки. В результаті впливу застосування ізоінерціального опору до довжині кроку, особливо до недоминантной довжині кроку, робиться висновок про те, що тривалі тренування з ізоінерціонним опором можуть підтримувати спринт з допустимим дисбалансом довжини кроку між домінуючою ногою і недоминантной ногою.
Рік видавництва: 2019
Журнал: Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports
Текст наукової роботи на тему «ACUTE EFFECTS OF ISOINERTIAL RESISTANCE APPLICATION ON SPRINT, VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL JUMP PERFORMANCE»
?Acute effects of isoinertial resistance application on sprint, vertical and horizontal jump performance
Kale M.1ABCDE, Ozmusul A.2BCDE, Heper E.1ABDE 1 Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Eski§ehir Technical University, Eski§ehir, Turkey
2 Department of Physical Education and Sports, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Anadolu University, Eski§ehir,
Authors 'Contribution: A - Study design; B - Data collection; C - Statistical analysis; D - Manuscript Preparation;
E - Funds Collection.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate of the acute effects of isoinertial resistance application on sprint, vertical and horizontal jump performance.
Material: Volunteered 32 male students were divided into randomized experimental group and control group. Before and after 4-repetition maximal back squat with (for experimental group) or without isoinertial resistance application (for control group), 30 m sprint, vertical squat and countermovement jump tests with both legs, dominant leg, and non-dominant leg, standing broad jump and standing broad countermovement jump tests with both legs were assessed. Wilcoxon t test for pre- and post-test differences within the group, and Mann Whitney U test for pre- and post-test differences between the groups were used.
Results: There were no significant differences within the group and between the groups for 30m both legs sprint
parameters except pre-test mean stride length between the groups (Z = -2.27; p<0.02). Control group had a significant difference between pre- and post-test dominant leg vertical force (Z = -2.07; p<0.05). There were significant group differences in pre-test non-dominant leg countermovement jump (Z = -2.13; p<0.05), pre-and post-test non-dominant leg stride length (Z = -1.99 and Z = -2.28; p<0.05, respectively).
Conclusions: As a result of the effect of acute isoinertial resistance application to stride length especially to non-dominant stride length it is concluded that long-term isoinertial resistance training can support sprint performance with tolerating stride length imbalance between dominant leg and non-dominant leg.
Keywords: isoinertial resistance, stride length, vertical jump, horizontal jump, dominant leg, non-dominant leg.
Since force and force production of neuromuscular system is critically important for high level performance in each sport event, most appropriate training methods are determined to develop power . Isoinertial eccentric training system that develops motor coordination based on proprioception, balance, neuromuscular efficiency and posture control by developing neuromuscular activity and that becomes one of the popular training methods is a technology that reveals equal amount of eccentric force against concentric force (isoinertial) applied by athletes . Since it is short and high intensity training, this training will increase power of athletes by enabling force and speed in muscle activities  and compared to weight training in eccentric muscle contraction, it provides higher muscle activation . Therefore, it was determined that isoinertial strength, speed, and force relation for maximal power helped identification of responsible mechanism and training adaptation .
Maximal power can be developed by increasing skills to develop high level of force in given speed and / or showing given force at higher speed . Isoinertial strength training reacts produced concentric force with constant eccentric resistance and enables development on unit power and explosive power by enabling contraction at muscle elongation phase. In optimally overloaded strength training, half squat and squat jump (SJ) are important movements to prevent force and speed decreases
© Kale M., Ozmusul A., Heper E., 2019 doi: 10.15561 / 18189172.2019.0204
. Wisloff et al.  stated that amount of weight in a maximum half squat is highly related with acceleration and vertical jump (VJ). Additionally, VJ is generally used for evaluation isoinertial leg power since it includes simple and explosive movements .
VJ and horizontal jump (HJ), including sequences of complex movements, are related with leg muscle strength, explosive power, flexibility of muscles in vertical or horizontal jump as well as vertical and horizontal jump techniques. To provide an effective VJ or HJ, during application of the jump technique, joints should be flexion in proper angles. Maximal muscle contraction during extension and explosive application of the movement increases efficiency of VJ and HJ . Height performed in VJ and distance performed in HJ evaluates leg power and these are closely related with speed performance . Maulder et al.  found statistically significant positive relationships among horizontal force (HF), vertical force (VF), and sprint velocity. Different jump tests are applied to test different strenght qualities. Squat jump (SJ) evaluates leg explosive power under concentric conditions while countermovement jump (CMJ) measures leg power under slow stretch shortening cycle and low stretching overload conditions . Due to stretch shortening cycle organised by high level of active movement during eccentric phase of CMJ stated by Cormie et al. , the most general dynamic performance test for neuromuscular fatigue during isoinertial resistance load is CMJ test . HJ requires both horizontal and vertical propulsive force
and this enables analysing activities that contain linear movements in horizontal plane . However, there are limited number of studies to determine horizontal functional performance relationships. Nagona et al.  determined that during an active movement in standing broad jump (SBJ) by moving centre of mass to forward effectively, there were more effective mechanical energy transfer and high level muscle activations based on hip flexion of muscles such as rectus femoris. Therefore, such plyometric jumps that can be considered as elastic power with maximal strength and indicates high relationships with muscle fiber type, contraction speed, metabolic properties of muscle, neuromuscular activation, and kinetic energy transfer.
Sprint and jump require eccentric strength plays an important role to develop performance . Eccentric strength training with isoinertial resistance training system will increase power by enabling force and speed as the muscle activitation  and compared to traditional weight training it provides higher muscle activation . This supports that isoinertial resistance training will be a more effective training for development of HF and VF during sprint, VJ height performed during SJ and CMJ, HJ distance performed during standing broad jump (SBJ) and standing broad countermovement jump (SBCMJ). Thus, the purpose of the currrent study was to investigate acute effects of isoinertial resistance application on sprint, VJ, and HJ performance.
Materials and methods
Thirty two male volunteer Faculty of Sports Sciences students, being physically active at easy-medium level (weekly<3 session aerobic activity), participated in this study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups as experimental group [(EG) (n = 16; age: 19.6 ± 1.3 years; height: 174.6 ± 7.2 cm; weight: 70.4 ± 8.1 kg)] and control group [(CG) (n = 16; age: 20.5 ± 2.1 years; height: 178.1 ± 5.5; weight: 71.9 ± 5.7 kg)]. The study was approved by Ethical Board of Anadolu University. Written informed consents were obtained from the subjects in accordance with the principle of Helsinki Declaration.
Subjects participated in tests and squat workouts for trial and familiarization between the hours of 9.30 and 11.00 one week before the study. Additionally, EG participated in squat workouts with isoinertial resistance application. After 20min warm-up consisting of light tempo running, flexibility, and calistenic exercises, 2x30m sprints with 3-min interval were tested on non-motorised treadmill. Based on both leg (BL), dominant leg (DL), and non-dominant leg (NDL) that sprint parameters stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL), HF, VF, work (W) and power (P) were determined. As stated by Kagoglu and Kale , VJ and HJ tests were applied after 90 sec passive rest. Pre-tests were completed 2 reps SJ, CMJ based on BL, DL, and NDL, SBJ and SBCMJ based on BL with 30sec interval between reps and 60sec passive rest between tests. Statistically better result of 2 trials
for each jump were evaluated. After three days of break, before post-test, both groups applied 4-RM half squat workout with BL and 3min passive rest was applied at the end. EG applied the workout with isoinertial resistance with isoinertial strength training system. After passive rest, tests were repeated with same protocols.
Isoinersial Resistance Application Program
While the subject was straight and parallel to wall, his elbows were bent 90 °, hands on waist, eyes looking forward, femur of each leg parallel to ground, and 90 ° knee angle, with isoinertial training system (Desmotec D11-V12 Version Sport Pro, Italy) linked to his waist with an adjustable rope, subjects applied 4-repetition maximal (4 RM) half squat workout. Power values from isoinertial resistance application are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Power values in isoinersial resistance application of EG (ORT ± SS)
CONCENTRIC POWER (W) ECCENTRIC POWER (W)
551 ± 290
507 ± 246
Subjects were participated to 2x30 m sprint test with 3 min intervals on non-motorised treadmill (Woodway Force 3.0, Woodway Inc., USA) after 20 min warm-up consisting of light tempo running, flexibility, and calistenic exercises. Before testing, HF strain gauge was adjusted parallel to treadmill based on the waist level. Thirty meter sprint speed was calculated with (Vmean) = distance (d) / time (t) in terms of m.sn-1. During 30 m sprint, mean HF (HF) and mean VF (VF) data were
A 'v mean' v mean '
recorded to computer at 200 Hz. The best 30 m sprint result was statistically analysed. HF was calculated
with 30 m sprint total HF / 30m sprint total stride number formula in terms of Newton. VF was calculated with 30
m sprint total VF / 30m sprint total stride number formula in terms of Newton. Same calculation method was used for all other sprint parameters of both legs that are mean SF (SF), mean SL (SL), mean W (W) and mean
mean mean mean
P (P), and also DL and NDL that are dominant leg
SF (SFDL), non-dominant leg (SFNDL), dominant leg SL (SLDL), non-dominant leg SL (SLNDL), dominant leg HF (HFdl), non-dominant leg HF (HFNDL), dominant leg VF (VFDL ), non-dominant leg VF (VFNDL), dominant leg W (WDL), non-dominant leg W (WNDL), dominant leg P (PDL), non-dominant leg P (PNDL). Vertical Jumps
SJ and CMJ tests based on BL, DL, NDL [both leg SJ (SJBL), dominant leg SJ (SJDL), non-dominant leg SJ (SJNDL), both leg CMJ (CMJBL), dominant leg CMJ (CMJDL), non -dominant leg CMJ (CMJNDL),] were applied to participants as VJ. To transfer data of jumping mat acted as electronic on-off switch to 1000Hz computer, ESC 2XXX Series Data Acquisition computer software (Turner Elektronik Ltd, Ankara, Turkey) was used and flight time of SJ and CMJ in BL, DL and NDL were
transferred to computer. After each VJ test, subjects rested for 60 sec. For each VJ test, 2 trials were conducted with 30 sec interval and higher jump height was considered for statistical evaluation. Each jump height was calculated with the formula adopted by Bosco et al. : h = g.tf2.8 - '. 100 where h- is the jump height (cm), g- is gravitational acceleration (9.81 m.s-2.), Tf is flight time (s). SJ was applied as vertical jump where feet were at shoulder width, eyes are focused straight, hands on waist, and waiting stable squat position (85-90 ° knee angle) for 2-3 sec while CMJ was applied on the same mat where feet were at shoulder width, eyes are focused straight, hands on waist, and squating in shortest time possible from the standing position to on knees (85-90 ° knee angle).
SBJ and SBCMJ tests based on BL were conducted as HJ test. SBJ was applied as broad jump where feet were at shoulder width, eyes are focused straight, hands on waist, and waiting stable squat position (85-90 ° knee angle) for 2-3 sec while SBCMJ was applied as broad jump where feet were at shoulder width, eyes are focused straight, hands on waist, and squating in shortest time possible from the standing position to on knees (85-90 ° knee angle). Distance between toe tip before broad jump and heel after broad jump was measured with a steel meter (Stabila, Germany) and recorded as cm. After each
horizontal jump test, participants rested for 60 sec. For each horizontal jump test, 2 trials were conducted with 30 sec interval and the longer jump distance was considered for statistical evaluation.
Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). After determining mean, standard deviation, and percentage change, intra-group pre-test and post-test percentage changes were determined. Intra-group pre- and post-test results compared with Wilcoxon T test, and inter-group pre- and post-test results compared with Mann Whitney U test. Significance level was selected as p<0.05.
As seen from Table 2, there were no statistically significant difference for all intra-group pre- and post-test results of VJ and HJ parameters of EG and CG. Except the post-test result of CMJNDL (Z = -2.13; p<0.05), there were no statistically significant differences for inter-group results of VJ and HJ parameters. When intra-group pre-and post-test% percentage was analysed, it was shown that VJ and HJ parameters were changed in between -9.3 and -0.5% for EG, between -6.6 and 0.5% for CG.
As seen from Table 3, there were no statistically
Table 2. Pre- and post-test results of vertical and horizontal jump parameters
JUMP PARAMETERS_PRE-TEST_POST-TEST_% CHANGE Z_p
EG 34.9 ± 4.7 33.4 ± 3.3 -4.2 -0.75 0.45
SJBL (cm) CG Z 35.2 ± 4.6 -0.28 34.4 ± 4.1 -0.53 -2.2 -0.49 0.62
P 0.77 0.59
EG 18.9 ± 3.3 17.8 ± 2.6 -5.8 -0.95 0.34
SJDL (cm) CG 20.3 ± 3.6 18.9 ± 3.5 -6.6 -1.32 0.17
Z -1.19 -0.97
P 0.23 0.33
EG 16.8 ± 3.1 15.5 ± 2.2 -7.7 -1.43 0.15
SJNDL (cm) CG 17.7 ± 2.9 17.0 ± 3.4 -3.9 -0.60 0.55
Z -1.05 -1.19
P 0.29 0.23
EG 38.3 ± 5.6 36.6 ± 3.9 -4.4 -0.40 0.69
CMJBL (cm) CG Z 38.4 ± 3.9 -0.57 37.8 ± 3.8 -1.12 -1.6 -0.52 0.60
P 0.57 0.26
EG 20.3 ± 3.4 19.2 ± 3.2 -5.4 -0.66 0.51
CMJDL (cm) CG Z 20.9 ± 4.1 -0.29 20.2 ± 3.8 -0.76 -3.4 -0.49 0.63
P 0.78 0.45
EG 18.2 ± 3.8 16.5 ± 2.4 -9.3 -1.40 0.16
CMJNDL (cm) CG 18.7 ± 2.6 18.8 ± 3.5 0.5 -0.14 0.88
Z -0.47 -2.13
P 0.64 0.03 *
EG 1.82 ± 0.16 1.76 ± 0.09 -3.2 -0.60 0.55
SBJ (m) CG 1.73 ± 0.22 1.70 ± 0.19 -1.7 -0.44 0.66
Z -1.85 -1.77
P 0.06 0.08
EG 1.89 ± 0.17 1.88 ± 0.11 -0.5 -0.73 0.47
SBCMJ (m) CG Z 1.84 ± 0.26 -1.38 1.85 ± 0.22 -0.66 0.5 -0.31 0.76
P 0.17 0.51
* Statistical significant pre-test inter-group difference, p<0.05.
significant differences between intra-group pre- and posttest V, SF, SL, HF, VF, W and P
mean mean mean 'mean mean mean mean
results of BL sprint parameters. There was a statistically significant difference for inter-group pre-test results of SL (Z = -2.27; p<0.02). There were no statistically
significant inter-group differences in pre- and post-test V, SF, HF, VF, W ve P results of BL
mean mean mean mean mean mean
sprint parameters. In EG, except VFmean (2.1%), all other BL sprint parameters showed negative change between -1.2 and -2.7%. In CG, except HF and VF (-0.5%
and -1.5% respectively), all other BL sprint parameters showed positive change between 0.7 and 1.9%.
As seen from Table 4, there were no statistically significant intragroup differences between pre- and posttest DL and NDL sprint parameters of EC and GC, except statistically significant difference for VFDL parameter (Z = -2.07; p<0.05) of CG. In terms of inter-group pre- and post-test SLNDL results, there were statistically significant differences (for pre-test Z = -1.99 and for post-test Z = -2.28; p<0.05) but there were no statistically significant differences for SLDL parameter. For WNDL results, there was only statistically significant inter-group pre-test difference (for pre-test Z = -2.22; p<0.03). Among EG pre-and post-test DL and NDL results, the highest changes were in WDL parameter with 6.6% positive change and in WNDL parameter with -6.6% negative change. Among CG pre- and post-test DL and NDL results, the highest changes were in WNDL parameter with 2.8% positive change and in VFdl parameter with -6.6% negative change.
In this study, all VJ and HJ parameters of EG and CG which were SJBL, SJDL, SJNDL, CMJBL, CMJDL, CMJNDL, SBJ and SBCMJ showed no statistically significant differences for intra-group pre- and post-test results. However, when percentage changes were analysed, there were decreasing trends in all pre- and post-test results of EG. For VJ, Howatson et al.  found that CMJBL was unchanged one day after isoinertial load application. Kennedy and Drake  determined that right after isoinertial resistance aplication, CMJBL statistically decreased (p<0.05) (36.1 ± 0.78 cm vs. 332.4 ± 0.74 cm). In current study, there was no statistically significant difference, however, CMJBL decreased from 38.3 ± 5.6 cm to 36.6 ± 3.9 cm. The jump test 3 min after isoinertial power application may be a factor causing such a difference. Sequence of motor unit recruitment in voluntary muscle contraction is from small motor unit to large motor unit based on intensity of stimulus and sub-maximal voluntary muscle contraction only recruites small motor units of muscle. During an eccentric contraction that contains maximal or supra-maximal contractions that cause recruitment of large motor units, elastic energy is stored in serial elastic elements and is used during concentric contraction where contractile elements and serial elastic elements shorten . For the activation that has a concentric contraction during SJ, more time is required for activation in CMJ that contain a concentric contraction right after an eccentric contraction . Therefore, with
Table 3. Pre- and post-test results of 30m BL sprint parameters
BL SPRINT PARAMETERS PRE-TEST POST-TEST% CHANGE Z p
EG 4.69 ± 0.29 4.62 ± 0.36 -1.5 -0.21 0.84
V (m.sn-1) CG mean 1 'Z 4.54 ± 0.27 -1.69 4.57 ± 0.34 -1.02 0.7 -0.31 0.76
p 0.90 0.31
EG 4.06 ± 0.28 4.01 ± 0.30 -1.2 -0.57 0.57
SF (Hz) SG mean Z 4.17 ± 0.26 -1.45 4.22 ± 0.33 -1.69 1.2 -0.26 0.79
p 0.15 0.09
EG 1.50 ± 0.19 1.48 ± 0.27 -1.3 -0.96 0.34
SLmean (m) ZCG mean Z 1.33 ± 0.23 -2.27 1.35 ± 0.22 -1.59 1.5 -0.18 0.86
p 0.02 * 0.11
EG 145 ± 11 143 ± 13 -1.3 -0.31 0.76
HFmean (N) CG mean Z 146 ± 11 -0.39 145 ± 12 -0.38 -0.5 -0.46 0.64
p 0.69 0.71
EG 643 ± 73 657 ± 72 2.1 -0.31 0.76
VFmean (N) CG mean Z 655 ± 51 -0.26 645 ± 50 -0.53 -1.5 -0.62 0.54
p 0.79 0.60
EG 218 ± 33 215 ± 54 -1.2 -0.41 0.68
W (J) SG mean Z 196 ± 42 -1.53 198 ± 44 -1.05 1.4 -0.05 0.96
p 0.13 0.29
EG 701 ± 91 682 ± 92 -2.7 -0.21 0.84
P (W) CG mean Z 677 ± 90 -0.72 689 ± 95 -0.11 1.9 -0.10 0.92
p 0.47 0.91
* Statistical significant pre-test inter-group difference, p<0.05.
Table 4. Pre- and post-test results of 30m DL and NDL sprint parameters
DL and NDL SPRINT PARAMETERS PRE-TEST POST-TEST% CHANGE Z p
EG 3.88 ± 0.33 3.88 ± 0.34 0.0 -0.10 0.92
sfdl (Hz) CG Z p 3.94 ± 0.36 -0.69 0.49 4.00 ± 0.39 -0.77 0.44 1.5 -0.62 0.54
EG 4.24 ± 0.34 4.14 ± 0.34 -2.3 -0.72 0.47
sfndl (Hz) CG Z p 4.39 ± 0.36 -1.24 0.21 4.43 ± 0.39 -1.87 0.06 0.9 -0.36 0.72
EG 1.61 ± 0.24 1.57 ± 0.32 -2.4 -0.91 0.37
sldl (m) CG Z p 1.48 ± 0.34 -1.69 0.09 1.46 ± 0.29 -1.09 0.27 -1.4 -0.41 0.68
EG 1.28 ± 0.19 1.32 ± 0.23 3.1 -0.43 0.67
slndl (m) CG Z p 1.16 ± 0.18 -1.99 0.05 * 1.17 ± 0.17 -2.28 0.02 * 0.9 -0.23 0.82
EG 141 ± 13 139 ± 18 -1.4 -0.57 0.57
HFDL (N) CG Z p 141 ± 16 -0.08 0.94 143 ± 12 -0.91 0.37 1.4 -0.31 0.76
EG 148 ± 19 146 ± 16 -1.3 -0.47 0.64
HFNDL (N) CG Z p 150 ± 13 -0.53 0.60 146 ± 18 -0.26 0.79 -2.7 -0.93 0.35
EG 647 ± 83 662 ± 95 2.3 -0.78 0.44
vfdl (n) CG Z p 675 ± 47 -1.28 0.20 634 ± 67 -0.72 0.47 -6.1 -2.07 0.04n
EG 639 ± 76 650 ± 79 1.7 -0.16 0.88
VFNDL (N) CG Z p 633 ± 48 0.01 1.00 648 ± 77 -0.12 0.91 2.4 -0.62 0.54
EG 181 ± 40 193 ± 46 6.6 -0.93 0.35
wdl (J) CG 179 ± 43 178 ± 41 -0.6 -0.36 0.72
Z p -0.57 0.57 -1.21 0.23
EG 254 ± 48 237 ± 74 -6.6 -1.14 0.26
WNDL (J) CG 212 ± 49 218 ± 58 2.8 -0.16 0.87
Z p -2.22 0.03 * -0.68 0.49
EG 693 ± 107 675 ± 110 -2.5 -0.36 0.72
PDL (W) CG 674 ± 106 687 ± 94 1.9 -0.16 0.87
Z p -0.45 0.65 -0.26 0.79
EG 709 ± 110 689 ± 97 -2.8 -0.52 0.61
PNDL (W) CG 678 ± 97 691 ± 126 1.9 -0.31 0.76
Z p -1.09 0.27 -0.42 0.68
* Statistical significant pre-test and post-test inter-group differences, p<0.05; n Statistical significant pre-test and posttest intra-group difference, p<0.05.
preliminary overload effect in CMJ, eccentric contraction caused an increase muscle force at the beginning of concentric contraction . Jakobsen et al.  showed that eccentric force training of hamstrings muscle group, recruited large motor units, positively increased eccentric force related performance development such as VJ and HJ. Nosaka et al.  stated that force production of an eccentric contraction is 5 times more than force producted of a concentric contraction. Vazquez-Guerreo and Moras  determined that since force of resistance in isoinertial system is dynamic, there is same or more
force development than same movements with traditional weight training. Norrbrand et al.  stated that eccentric force training with isoinertial resistance training system provided more muscle activation on eccentric muscle contraction compared to traditional weight training. In current study, except the post-test result of CMJNDL parameter (Z = -2.13; p<0.05), there were no statistically significant differences in all other VJ and HJ parameters. This significant difference shows that 4 RM isoinertial resistance application had acute effect on NDL. Based on this result, it could be thought that isoinertial resistance
training for CMJNDL can benefit to development of NDL elastic power.
In this study, there were no statistically significant differences between intragroup pre- and post-test results of EG and CG for V, SF, SL, HF, VF ,
mean mean mean mean mean
W, and P. These results indicate that 4 RM
isoinertial resistance applicaiton had no acute effect on all sprint parameters but statistically significant inter-group pre-test difference (Z = -2.27; p<0.02) and no statistically significant post-test difference for SL
indicated that in EG, 4 RM isoinertial resistance training had an acute effect. Accordingly, when SL was analysed for DL and NDL, intra-group and inter-group pre- and post-test results were compared for SLDL, there were no statistically significant differences. However, there were statistically significant intergroup differences for pre- and post-test results of SLNDL (Z = -1.99 and -2.28; p<0.05, respectively). Therefore, this shows that 4 RM isoinertial resistance application acutely effected SLNDL. Pre- and post-test results of EG, decreased SLDL (from 1.61 ± 0.24m to 1.57 ± 0.32m) and increased SLNDL (from 1.28 ± 0.19m to 1.32 ± 0.23m), indicated that this could help tolerating bilateral leg imbalance. When inter-group results were compared, while there was statistically significant pretest difference for WNDL (Z = -2.22; p<0.03), no statistically significant difference for post-test. In addition, increased WDL (from 181 ± 40J to 193 ± 46J) and decreased WNDL (from 254 ± 48J to 237 ± 74J) in pre-test and post-test oL
EG supports this idea. As stated by Chu and Korchemny , muscles are intensively contracted, relaxed, and strecthed during ballistic cyclic movements of sprint that absorb shocks and amortise external factors by moving body segments in different forms and range of motion accelerate or decelerate to balance joints and determine the best force application. Based on this force, SF and SL parameters of both legs are at optimum level. Therefore, while lower SF and higher SL was displayed in DL, higher SF and lower SL was displayed in NDL. Based on this, it is believed that high differences in SF, HF, VF, W, P, and especially SL could be eliminated or minimised in individuals with isoinertial resistance training based on 30m sprint in DL and NDL.
As a result of the effect of acute isoinertial resistance application to SL especially to SLNDL, it is concluded that long-term isoinertial resistance training can support sprint performance with tolerating SL imbalance between DL and NDL. In addition, statistically significant difference for intergroup CMJNDL showed that isoinertial resistance application for CMJNDL can develop NDL elastic power.
This study was supported by Anadolu University Scientific Research Projects by Project 1706S376.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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Cite this article as:
Kale M, Ozmusul A, Heper E. Acute effects of isoinertial resistance application on sprint, vertical and horizontal jump performance. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2019; 23 (2): 76-82. https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0204
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Accepted: 12.03.2019; Published: 30.04.2019
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