Текст наукової роботи на тему «" ABOUT ANCIENT GERMAN CONCEPTS 'WEALTH' AND 'MONEY' IN THE LIGHT OF INDO- EUROPEAN NOTIONS "»
?_PHILOLOGICAL SCIENCES /
Provodnikova A.L. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics DOI: 10.24411 / 2520-6990-2020-11502 "ABOUT ANCIENT GERMAN CONCEPTS 'WEALTH' AND 'MONEY' IN THE LIGHT OF INDO-
EUROPEAN NOTIONS "
The article is devoted to the study of Ancient German concepts of "wealth" and "money" based on the analysis of the two-layer structure of a complex concept.
Keywords: concept, ancient German concepts of "wealth" and "money", symbol.
The subject of research in this article is the ancient German conceptualization of 'wealth and money' in the light of ideas and Indo-European culture about value. The choice of these concepts allows you to reflect the features of the use of economic vocabulary directly in the texts and explore its genesis.
The first question we ask is why in modern English 'money' is associated with uncountable matters? What is the reason for this?
To answer this question, it is advisable to turn to history and analyze examples and their meanings, which of the meanings is "personal movable property" or "cattle, sheep" is actualized in i.-e. * Peku root as a primary one [1, p. 218].
E. Benvenist in the "Dictionary of Indo-European Social Terms" deviates from the traditional understanding of the meaning * peku as "cattle", or in the narrow meaning of "sheep", as from its first meaning and shows that the term originally meant "movable property", and only later got the opportunity to concretize in some languages and began to mean "livestock", "small livestock", "sheep". According to E. Benveniste, the concept of * peku in its original interpretation had the meaning of "value, wealth," and then began to designate "livestock" as a form of wealth. So, the Old German correlate of Old English feoh, mainly related to wealth and prosperity [2, p. 6].
One can give examples of composites where feoh bears the meaning of "wealth, treasure and gift". Occasionally, one can find a composite with feoh bearing the meaning "cattle", traditionally given first in dictionaries: feoh-ern means a money-place, treasury; feoh-gesteald means possession of riches; feoh-gestreon treasure, riches means treasure, wealth; feoh-gift means a money-gift; feoh-hof is a treasury; feoh-strang means money-strong, i.e., possessing cattle or money, but only Feoh butan gewitte means the cattle without interpreta-tation - Salm. Kmbl. 46; Sal. 23 [3, p. 277].
In the Old English written record "The Legend of St. Juliana", we find an example of the Old English feoh meaning "wealth": "To ^ am frum-gare feoh-gestealde witedra wenan, ^ st hy in win-sele, ofer beor-sele, beagas ^ egon, spplede gold ". [4, p. 283]. "Not the whole gang of hoodlums has reached the earth. Many lost their lives on the way to it, leaving them in that depth and abyss. The promised cash gifts, rewards and
gold rings were expected from the chieftain. "In this example, feoh is to be translated as" monetary "," feoh-gestealde "means" monetary gifts "[4, p 74].
We can say that originally Old English feoh was used in relation to wealth in general or movable property, and only occasionally, in the second sense, this word began to be used in relation to such a form of movable property as cattle. The meaning of "money" is a secondary, derivative of the concept of 'wealth'.
One of the arguments in favor of this hypothesis is the runic alphabet (senior futhorc). One of the semantic spheres of the runic alphabet is the notion of "cattle, property": [f] fe * faihu "cattle, movable property", Old English. fe, fech, feoh; [O] utal, * opal "inherited property", Old English o ^ al, e ^ el meaning "homestead, fatherland, one's own residence or property, inheritance, country, realm, land, dwelling, home, ie," inherited property "[2, p. 57]. The concepts of" movable "and" immovable "property are the basis for considering the series as a cycle. Runes No. 1 and No. 24 are synonymous in their household, economic, and, therefore , in "value" meaning: the former symbolizes "movable property", ie, money, livestock, wealth, and the latter means "immovable (or inherited) property" [5, p. 35], [6, p. 85].
The Anglo-Saxon Runic Poem is the most complete record of rune names. Anglo-Saxon rune feoh, i.e., "wealth" coincides in meaning with the Old Norse and Old Icelandic versions of the form, as well as with the Gothic. fe; they all go back to the all-German form of * fehu, i.e., "movable property". The economic meaning of the first rune among the Anglo-Saxons further in a series expands due to the implication of a specific number of objects that served for exchange meaning "cattle and money." The Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons causes a transformation of the ethnos. "Movable property" and "wealth" in the text of "Runic poems" are evaluated from the position of Christian morality; "Wealth is a pleasure for every person; each person must share a lot with it, if he wants to earn glory before God." [7, p. 209].
In Indo-European languages, these meanings often find pairing, as, for example, in English "goods and chattels". According to C. Watkins, the phrase "goods and chattels" is a formula that has a fixed word order and is limited in use and distribution. It is a translation into English of an English-Latin legal figure of speech
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denoting immovable and movable property "bonorum aliorum sive cattalorum" in the laws of the 11th century by Edward the Confessor "[8, p. 9]. Note that the formula is merism, that is, a two-part structure that relates to the universality of a single, higher concept, referring to the whole of wealth. The cultural theme of the formula has an Indo-European source and justifies the high probability of the Indo-European origin of the conceptual scheme of the futhorc [11, p. 54].
Thus, one can state that the idea of wealth and property is the basis of the cyclic construction of the Old German runic row; and runes No. 1 and No. 24 are paired meanings that materialize the idea of "the whole property" [10, p. 220]. Runic signs at the bracteates from Vadstena were written in circles: the first sign was adjacent to the last, closing the list in a cycle.
We share the traditional opinion about the nonran-domness of the semantic field of "property" [6, p. 30] in the futhorc. The binomial nature of the futhorc concept realized through the higher concept of "the whole property, wealth," allows us to explain the origin of the runic alphabet in a conceptual sense.
The runic series itself is conceived as a treasury of the Germanic peoples, a certain model of the ancient Germanic world.
The concepts of "wealth" and "value" are voluminous in their content. It is curious that in Indo-European languages, the abstract meaning of * peku as "cost or value" is primary and the concretization of the concept evolves linguistically on the scale of "livestock", then "type of livestock (sheep)" and , finally, "money".
The possibility of the emergence of 'money' concept is connected in culture with the calculation. One of its components is the choice of the unit of measure and count, i.e. it is the count that sets the condition for the appearance of a monetary unit.
In a futhorc, it is the concept of "movable property" that defines the condition of "unit and unitary" as a measure of counting and the value of tangible items, while the idea of counting is associated not with the concept of a "number "or" place in a natural number series ", but probably with the concept of" the material value of the item "[2, p. 8].
The main discovery in this part of our reasoning is this: the very concept of "wealth and value" can serve as a source of nominations for "money", while units of measurement of value and wealth do not give rise to the concept of ' value 'as such. And this is fundamentally important. All English words denoting monetary units, such as sceat, shilling, pound, penny, mancus, marc, do not mean wealth, they are only monetary equivalents of value, wealth, wellfare; units of value of tangible items. From here follows the uncountable character of modern money, since the basis of the concept is 'wealth' in general, and not its components [9, p. 33].
The bilayerness of "value" concept determines two levels of 'wealth': value and unit of value.
Gold and silver were the embodiment of wealth and were a form of 'money'. A study of the contexts
with the name of gold showed that Old English "gold" is also used in two layers. 'Gold' appears to be both a piece and a conceptual entity, as a symbol of 'wealth'. Gold is a material symbol of 'wealth', which is considered in Indo-European languages as a whole, dividing into parts, and not as a species, embodied in various specific manifestations. However, our contexts show that it is also a unit of 'wealth'. This results in the two-layered conceptual series of 'wealth' and 'value' (abstract), while units of value 'money' (specific) in terms of metal, gold.
Unlike the concept of 'money', 'gold' as a concept is present on two levels: both as an abstract symbol and as a unit of value. As for 'money', its calculation is made on the upper, defining layer of the whole, and 'money' is only one of the types of 'wealth' manifestations, along with cattle, sheep and other material marks of Indo-European peoples . 'Money' alone is not a symbol, the embodiment of 'wealth'.
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ancient German concepts of "wealth" and "money" /