The paper deals with the problem of identifying chrysophycean stomatocysts. An historical essay of classification schemes for chrysophycean stomatocysts is presented. It is noted that the stomatocysts are widely used in palaeolimnological studies. A new 395/13 morphotype of a chrysophycean stomatocyst from the pond of Peter the Great Botanical Garden is described on the basis of plankton samples. The stomatocyst is spherical (5.3? m diam.) and has a short cylindrical collar (1.8? m diam., 0.2? m high), with a conical pore (0.3? m diam.). The entire stomatocyst surface is covered with rounded scabrae 0.1-0.2? m in diameter. Morphology of the new stomatocyst morphotype was studied and its original micrograph was made with a scanning electron microscope.

Анотація наукової статті з біологічних наук, автор наукової роботи - Safronova T.V.


Новий морфотип стоматоцісти золотистих водоростей зі ставка Ботанічного саду ім. Петра Великого (Санкт-Петербург) (In English)

Розглядаються деякі проблеми ідентифікації стоматоціст золотистих водоростей. Представлений короткий історичний нарис схем, які використовуються для класифікації стоматоціст. Відзначено широке застосування стоматоціст в палеолімнологіческіх дослідженнях. На основі вивчення планктонних проб зі ставків Ботанічного саду ім. Петра Великого описаний новий для науки морфотип стоматоцісти хрізофітових 395/13. Стоматоціста округла (5.3 мкм в діаметрі.); комірець короткий, циліндричний (1.8 мкм в діаметрі., 0.2 мкм вис.), з конічною часом (діаметр 0.3 мкм). Вся поверхня стоматоцісти покрита округлими, рівномірно розташованими гранулами 0.1-0.2 мкм в діаметрі. Наведено дані про морфологію стоматоцісти і оригінальна мікрофотографія з використанням скануючої електронної мікроскопії.


Область наук:
  • біологічні науки
  • Рік видавництва діє до: 2015
    Журнал
    Новини систематики нижчих рослин
    Наукова стаття на тему 'A NEW MORPHOTYPE OF CHRYSOPHYCEAN STOMATOCYST FROM THE POND OF PETER THE GREAT BOTANICAL GARDEN (SAINT PETERSBURG)'

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «A NEW MORPHOTYPE OF CHRYSOPHYCEAN STOMATOCYST FROM THE POND OF PETER THE GREAT BOTANICAL GARDEN (SAINT PETERSBURG)»

    ?A new morphotype of chrysophycean stomatocyst from the pond of Peter the Great Botanical Garden (Saint Petersburg)

    T. V. Safronova

    Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Professora Popova Str., 2, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia; Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. Вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.

    Abstract. The paper deals with the problem of identifying chrysophycean sto-matocysts. An historical essay of classification schemes for chrysophycean stomato-cysts is presented. It is noted that the stomatocysts are widely used in palaeolimnolog-ical studies. A new 395/13 morphotype of a chrysophycean stomatocyst from the pond of Peter the Great Botanical Garden is described on the basis of plankton samples. The stomatocyst is spherical (5.3 ЦШ diam.) And has a short cylindrical collar (1.8 ЦШ diam., 0.2 ЦШ high), with a conical pore (0.3 ЦШ diam.). The entire stomatocyst surface is covered with rounded scabrae 0.1-0.2 ЦШ in diameter. Morphology of the new stomatocyst morphotype was studied and its original micrograph was made with a scanning electron microscope.

    Keywords: Chrysophyta, stomatocyst, electron-microscopic study.

    Новий морфотип стоматоцісти золотистих водоростей зі ставка Ботанічного саду ім. Петра Великого (Санкт-Петербург)

    Т. В. Сафронова

    Ботанічний інститут ім. В. Л. Комарова РАН, вул. Професори Попова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, 197376, Росія; Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. Вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.

    Резюме. Розглядаються деякі проблеми ідентифікації стомато-цист золотавих водоростей. Представлений короткий історичний нарис схем, які використовуються для класифікації стоматоціст. Відзначено широке застосування стоматоціст в палеолімнологіческіх дослідженнях. На основі вивчення планктонних проб зі ставків Ботанічного саду ім. Петра Великого описаний новий для науки морфотип стоматоцісти хрізофітових 395/13. Стоматоціста округла (5.3 мкм в діаметрі.); комірець короткий, циліндричний (1.8 мкм в діаметрі., 0.2 мкм вис.), з конічною часом (діаметр 0.3 мкм). Вся поверхня стомато-цисти покрита округлими, рівномірно розташованими гранулами 0.1-0.2 мкм в діаметрі. Наведено дані про морфологію стоматоцісти і оригінальна мікрофотографія з використанням скануючої електронної мікроскопії.

    Ключові слова: Chrysophyta, стоматоцісти, електронно-мікроскопічне дослідження.

    Stomatocysts are resting stages in the life cycle of Chrysophyta. They are hollow formations generally spherical (2-30 ЦШ in diameter) in shape. The surface of mature stomatocysts is strongly silicified. The sto-matocysts may be smooth-surfaced or ornamented with various structural elements such as spines, dots, granules, needles, and ridges. Species iden-

    tification of stomatocysts is very difficult. To identify them, it is most reliable to study the full life cycle of individual species in culture. At present, stomatocyst taxonomy is problematic because very little information is available about their variability in size, shape and cell ultrastructure within a species. Some species can form stomatocysts with different ornamentation depending on temperature (Cronberg, 1986). Few morphotypes of stomatocysts have been ascribed to certain species (Duff et al., 1995).

    Several taxonomic schemes have been proposed to distinguish sto-matocyst morphotypes whose biological affinity is unknown. The earliest schemes were constructed according to the binomial system of C. Linnaeus (Linnaeus, 1751; Deflandre, 1936). In 1956, G. Nygaard suggested using the term «cysta» for the title genus of an unidentified stomatocyst, which followed the name of the described morphotype (Nygaard, 1956). This system has been widely taken up by many experts (Leventhal, 1970; Sandgren, Carney, 1983; and others). In 1986, the International Stato-spore Working Group (ISWG) declared inadmissible the existence of different taxa for two stages of the life cycle (vegetative cells and sto-matocysts) of the same species. On behalf of the ISWG, G. Cronberg and C. D. Sandgren proposed a set of guidelines for description of stomatocysts (Cronberg, Sandgren, 1986). It was not intended to be a taxonomi-cal code, but suggested appointing a «type» (a SEM negative number of one specimen, to be kept by the author), a «type locality» (where and how the material was obtained) , and further ecological information and biological affinity in cases where it could be determined (Hansen, 2001). This system is currently taken as the standard for describing stomatocysts everywhere, including the handbooks of stomatocysts (Duff et al., 1995; Wilkinson et al., 2001).

    An important goal is to determine the taxonomic affinities of the morphotypes. However, even if researchers only refer to numbered morphotypes at this stage, stomatocysts still can be used as powerful markers of environmental change, as well as in other scientific endeavours (Duff et al., 1995). The stomatocysts of Chrysophyta are widely used in palaeo-limnological studies as indicators of trophic levels of water bodies, climate changes, salinity and pH of water, because they are well preserved in bottom sediments (Nygaard, 1956; Cronberg, 1986; Duff et al ., 1995). Because of a highly seasonal nature of some chrysophyte taxa, layers of cysts in laminated lake sediments have been used to differentiate seasons (Duff et al., 1995). Description of modern stomatocyst morphology is an important aspect of studying Chrysophyta and can serve as an additional criterion for assessing their diversity in water bodies.

    When studying plankton samples with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was found that our chrysophycean stomatocyst morphotype does not match any of the known morphotypes. Methods of sampling, processing and examination with SEM are described in Safronova (2014 року). Samples were taken on 17 May 2013 from the Figurnyi Pond located in the Peter the Great Botanical Garden, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. From pond samples taken earlier, four chrysophycean stomatocysts were identified, two of which were determined to species (Safronova, 2014 року). The description of a new stomatocyst morphotype is presented below.

    Stomatocyst 395/13 Safronova, nov. (Plate I).

    Biological affinity: unknown.

    Negative: 395.

    Number of samples: 8.

    Locality: Figurnyi Pond, Peter the Great Botanical Garden, Saint-Petersburg, Russia (59 ° 58.209 'N; 30 ° 19.688' E). 17.05.2013, water t ° = 19 ° C; pH 7.5; specific conductivity 250 ^ S cm-1.

    SEM description: The stomatocyst is spherical (5.3 ^ m in diam.), Having a short cylindrical collar (1.8 ^ m in diam., 0.2 ^ m high), with a conical pore (0.3 ^ m in diam.). The inner collar margin with a planar annulus has a radial annular ring. The entire stomatocyst surface is covered with rounded scabrae 0.1-0.2 ^ m in diam. arranged equidistantly in a regular pattern, with a distance of 0.2 ^ m between scabrae.

    The shape, size and surface morphology of stomatocyst 395/13 resemble those of stomatocyst 117 (Zeeb et al., 1990) but differ in collar morphology. Stomatocyst 117 has a cylindrical to slightly obconical collar (0.3-0.5 ^ m high); the basal part of the collar is covered with rounded scabrae arranged equidistantly in a regular pattern (as the entire surface of the stomatocyst). The collar of stomatocyst 395/13 is shorter (0.2 ^ m high) than the collar of stomatocyst 117 and is not ornamented with rounded scabrae. The inner collar margin of stomatocyst 395/13 with a planar annulus has a radial annular ring that is absent in stomatocyst 117.

    The study was carried out using the equipment of BIN RAS SEM Department, within the BIN RAS Laboratory of Algology project «Regional taxonomic and floristic studies of algae of marine and continental waters» (N 0120125605).

    References

    Cronberg G. 1986. Chrysophycean cysts and scales in lake sediments: a review. Chryso-

    phytes. Aspects and problems. New York: 281-315.

    Cronberg G., Sandgren C. D. 1986. A proposal for the development of standardized nomenclature and terminology for chrysophycean statospores. Chrysophytes. Aspects and problems. New York: 317-328.

    Deflandre G. 1936. Les flagelles fossils. Apercu biologique et paleolimnologique. Role geologique. Actual. Sci. Industr. Expos. Geol. Paris: 8-97.

    Duff K. E., Zeeb B. A., Smol J. P. 1995. Atlas of Chrysophycean cysts. Developm. Hy-drobiol. Vol. 99. Dordrecht: 189 p.

    Hansen P. 2001. Chrysophyte stomatocysts in the Azores - biogeographical implications and 110 new morphotypes. Opera Bot. 138: 1-96.

    Leventhal E. A. 1970. The Chrysomonadina. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 60: 123-142.

    Linnaeus C. 1751. Philosophia botanica in qua explicanturfundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adjectis figuris aeneis. Stockholmiae: 362 p.

    Nygaard G. 1956. Ancient and recent flora of diatoms and chrysophyceae in Lake Grib-s0. Folia Limnol. Scand. 8: 32-93.

    Safronova T. V. 2014. Seasonal changes of taxonomic composition of Chrysophycean algae (Chrysophyceae, Synurophyceae) in the ponds of Botanical garden BIN RAS (St.-Petersburg). Bot. Zhurn. 99 (4): 443-458. (In Russ. With Engl. Summary).

    Sandgren C. D. 1983. Survival strategies of chrysophycean flagellates: reproduction and the formation of resistant resting cysts. Survival strategies of the algae. New York: 23-48.

    Sandgren C. D., Carney H. J. 1983. A flora of fossil Chrysophycean stomatocysts from the recent sediments of Frains Lake, Michigan, USA // NovaHedwigia. 38: 129-163.

    Wilkinson A. N., Zeeb B. A., Smol J. P. 2001. Atlas of chrysophycean cysts. Developm. Hydrobiol. Vol. 157. Dordrecht: 169 p.

    Zeeb B. A., Duff K. E., Smol J. P. 1990. Morphological descriptions and stratigraphic profiles of chrysophycean stomatocysts from the recent sediments of Little Round Lake, Ontario. Nova Hedwigia. 51: 361-380.

    література

    Cronberg G. 1986. Chrysophycean cysts and scales in lake sediments: a review. Chrysophytes. Aspects and problems. New York: 281-315.

    Cronberg G., Sandgren C. D. 1986. A proposal for the development of standardized nomenclature and terminology for chrusophycean statospores. Chrysophytes. Aspects andproblems. New York: 317-328.

    Deflandre G. 1936. Les flagelles fossils. Apercu biologique et paleolimnologique. Role geologique. Actual. Sci. Industr. Expos. Geol. Paris: 8-97.

    Duff K. E., Zeeb B. A., Smol J. P. 1995. Atlas of Chrysophycean cysts. Developm. Hydrobiol. Vol. 99. Dordrecht: 189 p.

    Hansen P. 2001. Chrysophyte stomatocysts in the Azores - biogeographical implications and 110 new morphotypes. Opera Bot. 138: 1-96.

    Leventhal E. A. 1970. The Chrysomonadina. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 60: 123-142.

    Linnaeus C. 1751. Philosophia botanica in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adjectis figuris aeneis. Stockholmiae: 362 p.

    Nygaard G. 1956. Ancient and recent flora of diatoms and Chrysophyceae in Lake Gribs0. FoliaLimnol. Scand. 8: 32-93.

    [Safronova] Сафронова Т. В. 2014. Сезонні зміни складу золотистих водоростей (Chrysophyceae, Synurophyceae) в ставках Ботанічного саду БІН РАН (Санкт-Петербург). Бот. журн. 99 (4): 443-458.

    Sandgren C. D. 1983. Survival strategies of chrysophycean flagellates: reproduction and the formation of resistant resting cysts. Survival strategies of the algae. New York: 23-48.

    Sandgren C. D., Carney H. J. 1983. A flora of fossil Chrysophycean stomatocysts from the recent sediments of Frains Lake, Michigan, USA // Nova Hedwigia. 38: 129163.

    Wilkinson A. N., Zeeb B. A., Smol J. P. 2001. Atlas of chrysophycean cysts. Developm. Hydrobiol. Vol. 157. Dordrecht: 169 p.

    Zeeb B. A., Duff K. E., Smol J. P. 1990. Morphological descriptions and stratigraphic profiles of chrysophycean stomatocysts from the recent sediments of Little Round Lake, Ontario. Nova Hedwigia. 51: 361-380.

    Plate I. Stomatocyst 395/13 Safronova. Scale bar: 1 ^ m.

    Стоматоціста 395/13 Safronova. Масштабна лінійка: 1 мкм.


    Ключові слова: CHRYSOPHYTA / STOMATOCYST / Електронно-мікроскопічному дослідженні / ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC STUDY / СТОМАТОЦІСТИ

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