A lichen-like association occurring on thalli of other lichens and outwardly resembling species of genus Sphaerellothecium is briefly described, illustrated and discussed based on its new collection in the Arctic.

Анотація наукової статті з біологічних наук, автор наукової роботи - Zhurbenko M.P.


Нова знахідка загадкового ліхенофільні "лишайника" з Арктики

Представлені дані про нову знахідку в Арктиці лішайнікоподобной асоціації, що розвивається на талломах інших лишайників і зовні нагадує види Sphae-rellothecium.


Область наук:
  • біологічні науки
  • Рік видавництва: 2019
    Журнал
    Новини систематики нижчих рослин
    Наукова стаття на тему 'A NEW FINDING OF AN ENIGMATIC LICHENICOLOUS' LICHEN 'FROM THE ARCTIC'

    Текст наукової роботи на тему «A NEW FINDING OF AN ENIGMATIC LICHENICOLOUS 'LICHEN' FROM THE ARCTIC»

    ?LICHENS - лишайників

    A new finding of an enigmatic lichenicolous 'lichen' from the Arctic

    M. P. Zhurbenko

    Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

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    Abstract. A lichen-like association occurring on thalli of other lichens and outwardly resembling species of genus Sphaerellothecium is briefly described, illustrated and discussed based on its new collection in the Arctic.

    Keywords: lichenization, extreme environments, Russia, Siberia.

    Нова знахідка загадкового ліхенофільні «лишайника» з Арктики

    М. П. Журбенко

    Ботанічний інститут ім. В. Л. Комарова РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Росія

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    Резюме. Представлені дані про нову знахідку в Арктиці лішайнікоподобной асоціації, що розвивається на талломах інших лишайників і зовні нагадує види Sphae-rellothecium.

    Ключові слова: ліхенізація, екстремальні місцеперебування, Росія, Сибір.

    Screening arctic lichens in search of lichenicolous fungi, I found now and then a strange lichen-like association growing on thalli of other lichens. Its former finds from Norway and Russia on Lecidoma demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneider et Hertel and species of Stereocaulon Hoffm. were reported by Zhurbenko and Trie-bel (2008) and were interpreted as goniocysts or an "undetermined fungal taxon with primitive lichenization". Externally it looks like a species of the lichenicolous genus Sphaerellothecium Zopf, and at first I interpreted it as empty overmature as-comata of a Sphaerellothecium species occasionally colonized by unicellular green algae. However, with some experience I saw that this association is quite recognizable under a dissecting microscope (x 40-60) and does not contain any traces of asci or ascospores. It is described below based on its new collection from the Siberian Arctic.

    Material and methods

    Specimen examined. Russia, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Yamal Peninsula, Belyi Island, 3.2 km SW of MG Popova Polar Sea Hydrological Monitoring Station, 73 ° 18'33 "N, 70 ° 07'44" E, on sandy soil in polygonal lichen-moss tundra, on Si-

    https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/2019.532333

    333

    Zhurbenko. An enigmatic lichenicolous 'lichen' from the Arctic

    phula ceratites (Wahlenb.) Fr. (Thallus) (LE 264319a) and adjacent Cladonia sp. (Cup and basal squamules) (LE 264319b), 23 VII 2009 Walker.

    The specimen was examined with Zeiss microscopes Stemi 2000-CS and Axio Imager A1 equipped with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. Microscopical examination was done in water. The measurements of 'lichen bodies' and algal cells are given as: (min) {X-SD} - {X + SD} (max), where min and max are the extreme values, X the arithmetic mean, and SD the corresponding standard deviation. The studied material is housed in the Mycological Herbarium of the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute in St. Petersburg (LE).

    Description

    Vegetative hyphae superficial, conspicuous, black, branched, 3.5-8 | im diam., Medium brown in water mounts, septate, constricted at the septa, verruculose, supporting 'bodies' of unclear nature (Fig. 1). 'Bodies' almost black, glossy, subglobose, (20) 30-55 (75) | im diam. (N = 30), often with a slight depression above, but distinct pore not seen, sometimes collapsed when old, superficial, dispersed to aggregated, associated with a net of vegetative hyphae; wall medium brown in water mounts, paraplectenchymatous in surface view, of cells ca. 5-10 x 3.5-7.5 ^ m, verruculose. The interior of the 'bodies' filled with subglobose, ovoid or ellipsoid green algal cells (5) 5.5-9 (11) x (2.5) 4-7.5 (9) | im (n = 24, in water), alternating with colourless to occasionally pale brown, branched, septate hyphae, constricted at the septa, 2-6 | im diam., forming a sort of network. No diaspores were observed.

    Discussion

    The 'bodies' associated with a dark superficial hyphal net are reminiscent of Sphaer-ellothecium species, however, the observed internal hyphae are unusual for this genus. Habitually it is quite distinct from the species of Sphaerellothecium growing in the same habitats by its tiny glossy 'bodies'.

    Perhaps the same organism has formerly been reported from Scandinavia (probably from the alpine habitats) growing on thalli of Lecidoma demissum and Stereocaulon cumulatum (Sommerf.) Timdal (Ihlen, Wedin, 2007).

    I hypothesize that this is a peculiar lichen-like organism, probably recapitulating one of the original scenarios of lichenization in the extreme environments. There are many further questions to be answered, such as: "What is the origin of its photobi-ont?", "How does it propagate?", "Is it phylogenetically related to species of Sphaerellothecium?", "Can it be considered as obligately lichenicolous? ", and" Is it restricted to arctic-alpine environments? ".

    Acknowledgments

    The study was carried out within the framework of the research project of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Biodiversity, ecology, structural and functional features of fungi and fungus-like protists" (AAAA-A19-119020890079-6) using equipment of its Core Facility Center "Cell and

    Fig. 1. A 'lichen' growing on Siphula ceratites thallus (LE 264319a). 1 - habitus; 2 - squashed 'body' filled with green algal cells (in water); 3 - squashed 'body' with inner branched septate hyphae (in water); 4 - vegetative hyphae (in water). Scale bars: 1 - 200 | m; 2-4 - 10 | m.

    Molecular Technologies in Plant Science ". D. A. Walker is thanked for permission to examine his lichen collection from Yamal Peninsula.

    References

    Ihlen P. G., Wedin M. 2007. Cercidospora alpina sp. nov. and a key to the known species in Fennos-

    candia. The Lichenologist 39: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282907005853 Zhurbenko M. P., Triebel D. 2008.Three new species of Stigmidium and Sphaerellothecium (lichenicolous ascomycetes) on Stereocaulon. MycologicalProgress 7: 137-145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-008-0559-z


    Ключові слова: LICHENIZATION / EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS / RUSSIA / SIBERIA / ліхенізація / ЕКСТРЕМАЛЬНІ местообитании / РОСІЯ / СИБІР

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